Deposition and Microfabrication

Physical structures ranging in size from miniature objects (nanomaterials) to electrical devices (thin films) with planned properties can be made using the deposition and microfabrication capability. Materials with specific surface, bulk and interfacial properties for energy and environmental applications can be designed and made using these integrated capabilities. See a complete list of Deposition and Microfabrication instruments.

Resources and Techniques

  • Functionalized surfaces – Design and manufacture surfaces optimized for specific functions related to catalysis and other areas.
  • Model systems for geochemistry/biogeochemistry – Grow model oxide and mineral films with varying structure and complexity.
  • Materials with designed properties – Film growth and ion implantation for materials with specific properties.
  • Chemical and biological sensing – Film and surface layer deposition and modification, micro and nano-lithography, and solution synthesis capabilities.
  • Microfabrication – Engineering, software development and fabrication are used to design and fabricate next-generation components.

Description

Capability Details
• Unique oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy system for designing and constructing high-quality oxide thin films
• Spin coating and wet chemical synthesis to prepare thin films and nanostructures
• Focused ion beam for nanolithography and deposition and manipulation of structures at the nano scale
• Microfabrication suite for designing and etching complex patterns into varied substrates
• Hybrid physical vapor deposition system for depositing thin films of metals, oxides, nitrides and alloys with high purity and thickness control
• Pulsed laser deposition for growing complex oxides films
• Low-energy ion deposition for preparing ultra-pure films of complex molecules, including biomolecules, through a mass-selected soft-landing process
• Diverse and unrivaled expertise in advanced signal acquisition and processing instrumentation, signal analysis algorithms, laboratory automation systems and scientific data management solutions

Instruments

This instrument is newly available to EMSL users. For more information about this instrument and the science it will help enable, see the ...
Custodian(s): Ryan Kelly, Hardeep S Mehta
The FEI Helios Nanolab dual-beam focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) microscope combines two important high-resolution...
Custodian(s): Bruce Arey
Only available at EMSL, the Discovery Deposition System has been customized to be a fully automated multi-functional "hybrid" instrument with...
PNNL’s custom-built ice nucleation chamber is available to EMSL users to study the ice nucleating properties of atmospheric particles or aerosols in...
The mass-selected ion deposition system is a new instrument constructed at EMSL. The apparatus, shown in Figure 1, includes a high-transmission...
Custodian(s): Julia Laskin

Publications

Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric...
The oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of alkanols on oxide catalysts is generally described as involving H-abstraction from alkoxy species formed via O...
Hypoxic areas are a common feature of rapidly growing malignant tumors and their metastases, and are typically spatially heterogeneous. Hypoxia has a...
Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical...
Types of nickel sites as a function of preparation method have received much attention in the literature. In this work, two preparation methods,...

Science Highlights

Posted: February 01, 2016
The Science Microbial strains engineered to produce a large amount of lipids hold tremendous promise for the production of biofuels and chemicals. A...
Posted: December 28, 2015
Scientists are searching for plentiful materials that allow solar panels to produce fuel. Storing solar energy as fuel could allow solar power to...
Posted: August 17, 2015
The performance of solar cells, flat panel displays and other electronics are limited by today's materials. Scientists at Pacific Northwest National...
Posted: May 04, 2015
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists working at EMSL built a new high-intensity device that creates designer surfaces and structures...
Posted: December 19, 2014
Strontium titanate and other titanium oxides hold the promise of turning sunlight into fuel. They are excellent candidates for solar hydrolysis –...

Instruments

Remediation of metal and radionuclide contaminants in soil and groundwater systems is challenging because of their strong chemical interactions with...
We will develop new high-temperature sensor materials with adequate radiation damage resistance to acquire local diagnostic data in extreme...
The aim of this research is to create oxygen sensing fluorescent surfaces in plastic, and microfluidic structures, that are useful in the...
Synthesis of radioactive components of nuclear weapons generated abundant contaminant components, which were purposefully or accidentally...
EMSL resources are requested to enable an international team of collaborators to solve fundamental problems in interfacial glass corrosion chemistry...

Physical structures ranging in size from miniature objects (nanomaterials) to electrical devices (thin films) with planned properties can be made using the deposition and microfabrication capability. Materials with specific surface, bulk and interfacial properties for energy and environmental applications can be designed and made using these integrated capabilities. See a complete list of Deposition and Microfabrication instruments.

Resources and Techniques

  • Functionalized surfaces – Design and manufacture surfaces optimized for specific functions related to catalysis and other areas.
  • Model systems for geochemistry/biogeochemistry – Grow model oxide and mineral films with varying structure and complexity.
  • Materials with designed properties – Film growth and ion implantation for materials with specific properties.
  • Chemical and biological sensing – Film and surface layer deposition and modification, micro and nano-lithography, and solution synthesis capabilities.
  • Microfabrication – Engineering, software development and fabrication are used to design and fabricate next-generation components.

Impacts of Organic Ligands on Forsterite Reactivity in Supercritical CO2 Fluids.

Abstract: 

Subsurface injection of CO2 for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoirs, and geologic carbon sequestration produces a complex geochemical setting in which CO2-dominated fluids containing dissolved water and organic compounds interact with rocks and minerals. The details of these reactions are relatively unknown and benefit from additional experimentally derived data. In this study, we utilized an in situ X-ray diffraction technique to examine the carbonation reactions of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) during exposure to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) that had been equilibrated with aqueous solutions of acetate, oxalate, malonate, or citrate at 50 °C and 90 bar. The organics affected the relative abundances of the crystalline reaction products, nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O) and magnesite (MgCO3), likely due to enhanced dehydration of the Mg2+ cations by the organic ligands. These results also indicate that the scCO2 solvated and transported the organic ligands to the forsterite surface. This phenomenon has profound implications for mineral transformations and mass transfer in the upper crust.

Citation: 
Miller QR, J Kaszuba, HT Schaef, ME Bowden, and BP McGrail.2015."Impacts of Organic Ligands on Forsterite Reactivity in Supercritical CO2 Fluids."Environmental Science & Technology 49(7):4724–4734. doi:10.1021/es506065d
Authors: 
E Mark
Miller QR
J Kaszuba
HT Schaef
ME Bowden
BP McGrail
Volume: 
Issue: 
Pages: 
Publication year: 
2015

Dominance of interface chemistry over the bulk properties in determining the electronic structure of epitaxial metal/perovskite

Abstract: 

We show that despite very similar crystallographic properties and work function values in the bulk, epitaxial Fe and Cr metallizations on Nb:SrTiO3(001) generate completely different heterojunction electronic properties. Cr is Ohmic whereas Fe forms a Schottky barrier with a barrier height of 0.50 eV. This contrast arises because of differences in interface chemistry. In contrast to Cr [Chambers, S. A. et al., Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 4001.], Fe exhibits a +2 oxidation state and occupies Ti sites in the perovskite lattice, resulting in negligible charge transfer to Ti, upward band bending, and Schottky barrier formation. The differences between Cr and Fe are understood by performing first-principles calculations of the energetics of defect formation which corroborate the observed interface chemistry and structure.

Citation: 
Chambers SA, Y Du, M Gu, TC Droubay, S Hepplestone, and P Sushko.2015."Dominance of interface chemistry over the bulk properties in determining the electronic structure of epitaxial metal/perovskite oxide heterojunctions."Chemistry of Materials 27(11):4093-4098. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b01118
Authors: 
A Scott
Yingge Du
Timothy C Droubay
Chambers SA
Y Du
M Gu
TC Droubay
S Hepplestone
P Sushko
Volume: 
27
Issue: 
11
Pages: 
4093-4098
Publication year: 
2015

Crystallographic Dependence of Photocatalytic Activity of WO3 Thin Films Prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

Abstract: 

We investigate the impact of crystallographic orientation on the photocatalytic activity of single crystalline WO3 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB). A clear effect is observed, with (111) being the most reactive surface, followed by (110) and (001). Photoreactivity is directly correlated with surface free energy calculated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The RhB photodegradation mechanism on (110) surface is found to involve hydroxyl radicals in solution formed from photo-generated holes and differs from previous studies performed on nanoparticles and composites.

Citation: 
Li G, T Varga, P Yan, Z Wang, CM Wang, SA Chambers, and Y Du.2015."Crystallographic Dependence of Photocatalytic Activity of WO3 Thin Films Prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy."Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 17(23):15119-15123. doi:10.1039/c5cp01344e
Authors: 
Varga Tamas
Chong M Wang
Scott A Chambers
Yingge Du
Li G
T Varga
P Yan
Z Wang
CM Wang
SA Chambers
Y Du
Volume: 
17
Issue: 
23
Pages: 
15119-15123
Publication year: 
2015

High Performance Li-ion Sulfur Batteries Enabled by Intercalation Chemistry.

Abstract: 

The unstable interface of lithium metal in high energy density Li sulfur
(Li–S) batteries raises concerns of poor cycling, low efficiency and
safety issues, which may be addressed by using intercalation types of
anode. Herein, a new prototype of Li-ion sulfur battery with high
performance has been demonstrated by coupling a graphite anode
with a sulfur cathode (2 mA h cm-2) after successfully addressing the
interface issue of graphite in an ether based electrolyte.

Citation: 
Lu D, P Yan, Y Shao, Q Li, SA Ferrara, H Pan, GL Graff, B Polzin, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao.2015."High Performance Li-ion Sulfur Batteries Enabled by Intercalation Chemistry."Chemical Communications 51(70):13454-13457. doi:10.1039/C5CC05171A
Authors: 
M Chong
Lu D
P Yan
Y Shao
Q Li
SA Ferrara
H Pan
GL Graff
B Polzin
CM Wang
J Zhang
J Liu
J Xiao
Volume: 
51
Issue: 
70
Pages: 
13454-13457
Publication year: 
2015

Electronic and magnetic properties of epitaxial perovskite SrCrO3(001).

Abstract: 

We have investigated the intrinsic properties of SrCrO3 epitaxial thin films synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy. We find compelling evidence that SrCrO3 is a correlated metal. X-ray photoemission valence band and O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a strongly hybridized Cr3d-O2p state crossing the Fermi level, leading to metallic behavior. Comparison between valence band spectra near the Fermi level and the densities of states calculated using density functional theory (DFT) also suggests the presence of coherent and incoherent states and points to a strong electron-electron correlation effects. The magnetic susceptibility can be described by Pauli paramagnetism at temperatures above 100 K, but reveals antiferromagnetic behavior at lower temperatures resulting from orbital ordering as suggested by Ortega-San-Martin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 255701 (2007)].

Citation: 
Zhang H, Y Du, P Sushko, ME Bowden, V Shutthanandan, L Qiao, G Cao, Z Gai, S Sallis, LFJ Piper, and SA Chambers.2015."Electronic and magnetic properties of epitaxial perovskite SrCrO3(001)."Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 27(24):245605. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/27/24/245605
Authors: 
Du Yingge
Mark E Bowden
V Shutthanandan
Scott A Chambers
Zhang H
Y Du
P Sushko
ME Bowden
V Shutthanan
L Qiao
G Cao
Z Gai
S Sallis
LFJ Piper
SA Chambers
Volume: 
Issue: 
Pages: 
Publication year: 
2015

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Leads

(509) 371-7816

Dr. Bowden joined EMSL in 2009 and currently manages EMSL's optical spectroscopy and diffraction, subsurface flow and transport, and microfabrication and deposition capabilities. He is responsible for the X-ray diffraction facility and assists...