Instruments

To help with proposal planning, icons in the table below indicate instrument availability:

  • 10 hours a day, 5 days a week
  • 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Instrument Science Contact Description
100-MHz wide-bore NMR
Nancy Washton (509) 371-7094
Sarah D Burton (509) 371-6535
Research applications Samples containing paramagnetics Soils (SOM and NOM) Metal oxide materials for catalysis applications Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. Solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) probes: 5-mm DOTY HX MAS probe Spinning up to 18 kHz Regular X-channel tuning from 15N to 31P 7.5-mm Agilent HX MAS probe Maximum spin rate: 7 KHz X-channel tuning range from 15N to 31P 14.0-mm HX MAS probe Maximum spin rate: 3 KHz X-channel tuning range from 15N to...
300-MHz Wide-bore NMR for Solids
Sarah D Burton (509) 371-6535
Highlighted Research Applications Characterization of natural and soil organic matter (NOM and SOM) CO2 sequestration investigations via high-pressure MAS probe Amorphous material characterization (e.g., glass). Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. Solid-state MAS probes (Varian) 4.0-mm HXY probe 18 kHz maximum spin rate. 5.0-mm HXY probe 12 kHz maximum spin rate. 5.0-mm HC probe 12 kHz maximum spin rate Accommodates high-power decoupling for DRAWS experiments....
500-MHz Wide-bore Imaging NMR
Ryan Renslow (509) 371-6567
Highlighted Research Applications EMSL's Bruker 500-MHz WB spectrometer is uniquely tailored for in vivo studies: Microbial biofilms relevant to human health and environmental processes Animal and plant tissue samples Microbial suspensions relevant to biofuels and other bioproducts Small animals via non-invasive μ-MRI and MRS. Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. System Configuration and Capabilities Actively shielded, vibration-damped wide-bore magnet Latest-...
500-MHz Wide-bore NMR (Solids)
Andrew S Lipton (509) 371-6533
Sarah D Burton (509) 371-6535
Highlighted Research Applications Dynamics studies via 2H NMR Characterization of quadrupolar nuclei for materials and biological samples In situ catalysis investigations via continuous flow (CF) NMR probe for both gases and liquids interacting with solid substrates. Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. Solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) probes: 4-mm Agilent HXY MAS probe Spinning up to 18 kHz Variable temperature (VT) operation from -150°C to 250°C Regular X-...
5500XL SOLiD Sequencers
Galya Orr (509) 371-6127
Two massively parallel next-generation sequencing platforms (SOLiD4) are currently incorporated in users' research for transcriptomics analysis. The platforms can be used for a wide array of applications, such as global gene expression analysis with single base resolution, single-cell or meta-transcriptomic analysis, regulation of gene expression including ChIP-Seq or microRNA analysis, and the identification of novel genes or isoforms. The platforms offer a non-biased, highly quantitative, and accurate method to sequence DNA or RNA from any source and supersede that of previous technologies...
600-MHz NMR Cryoprobe for Liquids
Nancy Isern (509) 371-6538
Highlighted Research Applications Structural biology Protein structure and dynamics Nuclei acid structure and dynamics. Metabolomics Eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. For remote use, the user may ship sample(s) to EMSL, and a staff scientist will assist with placing the sample(s) in the magnet and tuning the probe. The user can then operate the spectrometer via a secure Internet connection. Solution-state probes: 5-mm HCN Z-gradient...
600-MHz NMR for Solids
Nancy Washton (509) 371-7094
Highlighted Research Applications Characterization of quadrupolar nuclei for materials and natural sediment samples High power diffusion measurements of cation migration in polymeric materials Ultra-fast MAS for materials and biological samples (up to 60 kHz). Researchers may operate this system independently on site or, in some cases, remotely. Science Theme proposal users may be provided initial training when necessary, although collaboration with EMSL scientists is encouraged. Note: this spectrometer has limited access. Contact the instrument custodian for more details. Solid-state MAS...
600-MHz NMR System for Metabolomics
Nancy Isern (509) 371-6538
Highlighted Research Applications Metabolomics Eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. For collaborations, the user may ship samples to EMSL. An EMSL scientist then will perform the experiment setup and data collection. EMSL scientists also are available to collaborate on data analysis and interpretation. Solution-state probes: 5-mm HCN salt sensitive Z-gradient cold probe with variable temperature (VT) control: 0 to 80°C 5-mm HCN Z-...
750 MHz NMR for Radiological Studies
Nancy Washton (509) 371-7094
EMSL's Bruker wide-bore 750 MHz solids/liquids/imaging spectrometer is dedicated to radiological and environmental samples. Housed in the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex, it is the highest field radiological NMR system in the world. This instrument allows real-world, radionuclide-containing samples to be investigated rather than proxy, or model systems. In addition, this system offers a unique high-field bioreactor environment for live, in situ microbial system multinuclear imaging and depth-resolved spectroscopy (in development). The 750-MHz WB system comprises three solid-state NMR probes, four...
750-MHz NMR for liquids
Nancy Isern (509) 371-6538
Sarah D Burton (509) 371-6535
Highlighted Research Applications Structural biology Protein structure and dynamics Nuclei acid structure and dynamics. Metabolomics Eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Low gamma nuclei solids investigations. Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. For remote use, the user may ship sample(s) to EMSL, and a staff scientist will assist with placing the sample(s) in the magnet and tuning the probe. The user can then operate the spectrometer via a secure Internet connection....
800-MHz NMR Cryoprobe for Liquids
David Hoyt (509) 371-6545
Nancy Isern (509) 371-6538
Highlighted Research Applications Structural biology Protein structure and dynamics Nuclei acid structure and dynamics Metabolomics Eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cryogenic investigations of metalloprotein biocatalytic centers containing low gamma nuclei (e.g., Zn, Cu, Mn, Mg, etc.) Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. For remote use, the user may ship sample(s) to EMSL, and a staff scientist will assist with placing the sample(s) in the magnet and tuning the probe....
850-MHz Wide-bore NMR for Solids
Sarah D Burton (509) 371-6535
Andrew S Lipton (509) 371-6533
Highlighted Research Applications Characterization of quadrupolar nuclei for materials and biological samples In situ catalysis investigations via continuous flow (CF) NMR probe for both gases and liquids interacting with solid substrates Protein structure and dynamics of membrane proteins and metalloproteins via Bio-Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Ultra-fast MAS for materials and biological samples (up to 60 kHz). Researchers may operate the system independently and can be trained to manage fully self-directed operations. Collaborative work with staff scientists is encouraged. Commercial Solid-...
Aerosol Mass Spectrometer
M Lizabeth Alexander (509) 371-6229
The Quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (QAMS) manufactured by Aerodyne Inc., was added as a capability in the EMSL user facility in 2004 and the Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (TOF-AMS) in 2005. The AMS quantitatively measures the size and chemical composition of volatile/semi-volatile submicron aerosols. The AMS is designed to provide quantitative composition information on ensembles of particles. The QAMS combines a linear quadrupole mass spectrometer and standard vacuum techniques with recently developed aerosol sampling techniques to provide limited single particle...
Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System
Russell Tonkyn (509) 371-6157
The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the treatment of gas-phase pollutants. EMSL houses several quartz plug reactors designed to hold either extrudate or coated monolith catalysts. A gas inlet capable of mixing up to eight gases plus water is used to simulate the waste stream of interest. A temperature-programmable furnace controls the reactor temperature. After treatment, the gas is sampled by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, and an oxides-of-nitrogen meter. Individuals may use this...
Atom Probe Tomography
Arun Devaraj (509) 371-6412
Daniel Perea (509) 371-6235
The LEAP® 4000 XHR local electrode atom probe tomography instrument enabled the first-ever comprehensive and accurate 3-D chemical imaging studies of low electrical conductivity materials, such as ceramics, semiconductors and oxides. The atom probe is assisting EMSL's efforts to further scientific advancements in interface analysis and microstructural characterization, providing a new tool for understanding the relationship between the nanoscale structure of materials and their macroscopic properties. It's also being used to advance aerosol research. EMSL's Atom Probe Offers: Unique...
Atomic Force Compound Microscope
Dehong Hu (509) 371-6126
The atomic force microscope (AFM) compound microscope, is designed primarily for fluorescence imaging in the study of nanoscale chemical processes, such as interfacial electron transfer, organic thin film devices and cell membrane protein characterizations. This high-resolution, highly sensitive instrument provides correlated optical and topographical images, with the image resolution beyond the optical diffraction limit. The instrument is equipped with a Nikon inverted microscope (Model: Diaphot); Digital Instrument AFM (Model: Bioscope); raster scanning device (constructed by PNNL...
Aurora Data File Storage
Ryan Wright (509) 371-6105
Dave Cowley (509) 371-6471
Aurora, EMSL's scientific data archive, is a dedicated computer system specifically designed for long-term storage of data collected by EMSL instruments. It is available at no cost to EMSL users who are part of an active EMSL user project, and follows EMSL's Data Management policies. Aurora is safe Designed to safely & securely hold data on a long-term basis Stores multiple copies of data to protect from data loss in case of media failure Expertly maintained by skilled information systems professionals from EMSL's Molecular Sciences Computing Group Monitored continuously for optimum...
Bio-Logic SFM-400/S
Zheming Wang (509) 371-6349
The Bio-Logic® SFM-400/S is a 4-syringe stopped-flow system that offers the capability to carry out complex, multi-mixing experiments with the lowest rates of aging and deadtimes. The 4-syringe system offers a minimum deadtime of 0.25 ms with a microcuvette. In tests conducted in EMSL using regular cuvettes, an instrument deadtime of less than 1 ms with the FC08 (0.8-mm light pathlength) or ~ 2 ms with the FC10/100 (10-mm light pathlength) was easily achieved. The small sample volume of less than 0.03 ml makes the system ideal for experiments such as those involving biological reactants for...
Cascade Supercomputer The 3.4 petaflop system's 23,000 Intel processors have 184,000 gigabytes of memory available, about four times as much memory per processor as other supercomputers. The additional memory will allow scientists to use the processors more efficiently for biology, climate research, chemistry and materials science. Read more about our computing policies.
Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Alice Dohnalkova (509) 371-6515
This FEI Tecnai T-12 cryo-transmission electron microscope (TEM) complements EMSL's broader microscopy suite and JEOL 2010 analytical high-resolution TEM. The cutting-edge capabilities of the T-12 cryo-TEM include: (1) a high-tilt stage that allows image tilt series to be obtained for three-dimensional reconstruction using electron tomography, and (2) a cryostage for observing samples in a frozen-hydrated state. The T-12 cryo-TEM is primarily devoted to biological samples involving morphological and immuno-cyto chemistry studies, but it also supports imaging of samples such as soft materials...
Deep Reactive Ion Etching System
Ryan Kelly (509) 371-6525
Hardeep S Mehta (509) 371-6461
This instrument is newly available to EMSL users. For more information about this instrument and the science it will help enable, see the Microfabrication Capabilities details page [.pdf, 86kb]. 
Electron and Photon Stimulated Desorption
Greg Kimmel (509) 371-6134
EMSL's non-thermal interfacial reactions instrumentation is available for use in research directed toward understanding non-thermal interfacial processes. Much radiation damage occurs due to the many secondary electrons produced when high-energy radiation penetrates a material. Using this instrumentation, researchers can probe the details of radiation "damage" on both clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces by observing the effects of low-energy electron bombardment of samples. Studies of amorphous ice, as well as a newly developed liquid beam source, permit investigation of non-thermal...
Electron Spectrometer: HREELS
Mike Henderson (509) 371-6527
EMSL's ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface chemistry-high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) system is designed to study the molecular-level chemistry of adsorbates on metal oxide surfaces. This system is equipped with several spectroscopic tools that follow changes in adsorbate chemistry, including HREELS, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and ultraviolet photoemission and (electronic) electron energy loss spectroscopies. This system also contains an ion gun for sample cleaning, and an Auger electron spectrometer and low-energy electron diffraction system for characterizing...
Energetic Processes Instrumentation w/ Lasers
Alan G Joly (509) 371-6158
EMSL offers a suite of instrumentation dedicated to understanding photoreactivity in the condensed phase, on surfaces, and at material interfaces. In addition, a variety of continuous wave and pulsed laser sources are available that are capable of providing tailored photoexcitation from the extreme ultraviolet through mid-infrared. Pulse durations of these instruments range from several nanoseconds to less than 100 femtoseconds. Laser desorption and ablation from surfaces is a powerful experimental tool used for studying the energetics and dynamics of the interaction of molecules with...
Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM)
Alexander Laskin (509) 371-6129
Scott Lea (509) 371-6233
The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is a new-generation SEM that can image samples under controlled environments and temperatures. Three-dimensional section analysis morphology, focused ion beam, electron backscattering diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis make this a versatile instrument for the user program. This instrument provides added capability in SEM imaging with an advanced ability to analyze wet and insulating materials as well as samples at elevated temperatures under controlled gaseous environments. This instrument: Provides precise 3D imaging and...
Environmental TEM
Libor Kovarik (509) 375-4377
EMSL's environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) is a state-of-the-art, Cs-corrected field emission gun (FEG) scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with an Environmental Cell infrastructure for controlled gas inlet into the sample/holder area and analysis of the chemical composition of the atmosphere in this area. The ETEM will allow researchers to perform microscopic and spectroscopic in situ measurements relevant to catalytic and geochemical studies important to energy and environmental applications and is expected to answer important questions about the...
Flow Cell
Tom Wietsma (509) 371-6375
Mart Oostrom (509) 372-6044
EMSL's Subsurface Flow and Transport Experimental Laboratory offers several meter-scale flow cells and columns for research in saturated and unsaturated porous media. The laboratory is also equipped with a fully automated, state-of-the-art dual-energy gamma radiation system that can be used to simultaneously and nondestructively determine saturation of two immiscible fluids (water/nonaqueous phase liquid [NAPL], water/air, NAPL/air), bulk density and water content, and water content and salt concentration. However, potential research is not limited to NAPL investigations; any flow, transport...
Fluorescence Confocal, Multi-Photon/FLIM Integrated Microscope
Galya Orr (509) 371-6127
Dehong Hu (509) 371-6126
High-sensitivity total internal reflection fluorescence (FLIM) microscopes support time-lapse single-molecule fluorescence imaging of individual proteins or organelles in living cells. The multi-photon microscope, which seamlessly integrates nonlinear two-photon excitation, laser-scanning confocal microscopy, and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in one fully automated system, The system provides nonlinear two-photon excitation that allows minimally invasive and deep-penetrating, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of living systems, while FLIM supports quantitative fluorescence...
Fluorescence, Single-Molecule Microscope
Dehong Hu (509) 371-6126
The single-molecule optical microscope is designed to study complex reaction dynamics such as enzymatic reactions, protein-protein interactions, and interfacial electron transfer process. It is designed and adapted specifically for single-molecule spectroscopy experiments. Constructed by PNNL researchers, this instrument comprises an inverted optical microscope, a variety of continuous-wave and pulsed lasers, optics, spectrometers, and ultrasensitive photon detectors. Researchers use this instrument to study a variety of samples in solid phase and solution. For solid-phase experiments, the...
Fluorescence, Super Resolution STORM Microscope
Galya Orr (509) 371-6127
Dehong Hu (509) 371-6126
EMSL has developed and offers Fluorescence, Super Resolution STORM (stochastic optical reconstruction microscope), also known as PALM (photo-activated localization microscopy). STORM is a fully automated super-resolution fluorescence microscope that enables fluorescence imaging of the intact cell with nanometer resolution. It incorporates single-molecule fluorescence techniques to reconstruct super-resolution images using software that automatically acquires and analyzes data in real time.
Fluorescence, Super Resolution Structured Illumination Microscope
Galya Orr (509) 371-6127
EMSL's super resolution fluorescence structured illumination microscope, or fluorescence SIM, is part of a suite of non-conventional, cutting-edge, high-spatial and temporal resolution microscopes at EMSL that give users new insights into living cells. Classified as a super resolution fluorescence microscope, the fluorescence SIM delivers significantly higher spatial resolution imaging than conventional light microscopes. The fluorescence SIM's resolving power is about 100-130 nanometers, about two to three folds higher resolution than the 250-300 nanometers resolving power of conventional...
Four-Circle X-Ray Diffraction
Tamas Varga (509) 371-6042
Mark Bowden (509) 371-7816
Systems Configuration and Operational Overview All work involving the following systems and any experiments conducted in EMSL laboratories must be performed in compliance with EMSL practices and permits. The four-circle X-ray diffractometer is a PANalytical X'Pert MRD PRO system with a horizontal, high-resolution Ω-2Θ goniometer (320 mm radius). An open Eulerian cradle provides two additional axes of rotation (-90° < ψ < 90°, and -360° < Φ < +360°). The X-ray source is a long-fine-focus, ceramic X-ray tube with Cu anode. Normal operating power is 45 kV, 40 mA (1.8 kW). The sample...
FT-ICR, 6T Ion Surface Collisions Mass Spectrometer
Julia Laskin (509) 371-6136
The 6-Tesla High-Field Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FT-ICR MS), is a unique instrument designed and constructed at EMSL. It was designed to incorporate surface-induced dissociation (SID) as an excitation method for complex ions. The instrument is equipped with a high-transmission electrospray ionization source (ESI) and an intermediate pressure matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) source for efficient ionization of large molecules. The ESI source consists of an ion funnel, a mass-resolving quadrupole, and an external ion accumulation cell. Ions...
FTIR-Standard
Two Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers (IFS66 and IFS66/V) with visible, near-, mid- and far-infrared (IR) capabilities are available at EMSL. With these unique resources, infrared or Raman spectrum of a host of different species—including the most challenging of samples—can be obtained. Examples of work using these FTIRs include: Determining the structure and dynamics of interlayer water and chloride ions in hydrotalcite (Wang et al. 2003) Determining water content in oil samples (Foster et al. 2001) Speciating vegetative bacteria (Thompson et al. 2003) Determining...
General Purpose X-ray Diffraction
Tamas Varga (509) 371-6042
Mark Bowden (509) 371-7816
System Configuration and Operational Overview All work involving the following systems and any experiments conducted in EMSL laboratories must be performed in compliance with EMSL practices and permits. The general purpose X-ray diffractometer is a PANalytical X'Pert MPD system with a vertical Θ-Θ goniometer (190-mm radius). The X-ray source is a long-fine-focus, ceramic X-ray tube with Cu anode. Normal operating power is 40 kV, 50 mA (2.0 kW). The system optics consist of programmable divergence, anti-scatter, and receiving slits; incident and diffracted beam soller slits; a curved,...
Geochemistry Atomic Force Microscopy
Kevin M. Rosso (509) 371-6357
Scott Lea (509) 371-6233
The Geochemistry Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is able to measure the structural, topographic, electrical, and magnetic properties of a wide range of mineral surfaces and affixed microorganisms. The new AFM has multiple sample environments. It can image in ambient conditions and fluids and will be equipped with a sample heating and cooling stage with a range of at least -30°C to 200°C. The software interface, scan speeds, and image resolution represent significant upgrades from existing instrument. Additionally, it has the following imaging modes: contact, intermittent contact, phase imaging...
Helios Dual Beam FIB/SEM microscope
Bruce Arey (509) 371-6485
The FEI Helios Nanolab dual-beam focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) microscope combines two important high-resolution microscopy tools that jointly enable important nanoscale measurements and the unique preparation of samples and materials for other uses or analysis. This instrument will provide rapid and selected region preparation of samples for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other spectroscopies; three dimensional analyses of nanoscale materials and other small objects; and the capability for nanoscale lithography. Functionally, the instrument includes...
Helium Ion Microscope
Shuttha Shutthanandan (509) 371-6530
Scott Lea (509) 371-6233
Bruce Arey (509) 371-6485
The Helium Ion Microscope promises to advance biological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and surface/interface studies using its combined surface sensitivity and high-resolution microscopy functions. The HIM is equipped with a Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) capability that identifies atomic elements. In the future, the RBS capability will allow 3-D chemical analysis when paired with an improved spectrum detector.   EMSL'S Helium Ion Microscope Offers: Ultra-high resolution — reveals fine structure details and allows chemical visualization of nanostructures and biological samples...
High-Field EPR Spectrometer (W-band)
Eric Walter (509) 371-6873
The W-band pulsed EPR spectrometer, introduced in 2011, is one of only two of its design worldwide. It uses a Quasi-optical bridge and an induction-mode probe to provide the highest possible pulsed performance with deadtimes of less than 30 ns (potentially much less, depending on sample tuning). With a 1-kW peak pulsed power and 1-GHz bandwidth EIK amplifier, it is capable of /2 pulses less than 8 ns. Both non-resonant waveguide and Fabry-Pérot sample holders are used. The 89-mm bore Varian magnet has permanent leads and a persistent mode switch, allowing the main field to either be swept or...
High-Pressure Model Catalyst System
Janos Szanyi (509) 371-6524
This unique instrument is capable of measuring gas/solid reaction rates under realistic, high-pressure (∼1 atm) conditions using model, low-surface area solid samples. To date, it has been primarily used to measure the kinetics of gas-phase reactions over model heterogeneous catalysts. As with research microreactor (e.g., chemical reaction test stand, RXM-100 catalyst testing and characterization machine) studies of realistic catalyst materials, reaction rates as a function of temperature and varying reagent partial pressures can be measured in this instrument. From such data, a reaction...
Hybrid Thin Film Deposition System
Ryan Kelly (509) 371-6525
Mark Bowden (509) 371-7816
Hardeep S Mehta (509) 371-6461
Only available at EMSL, the Discovery Deposition System has been customized to be a fully automated multi-functional "hybrid" instrument with several modes for thin film processing, including multi-target sputtering, effusion cell deposition, electron beam deposition, and in-situ reflection high-energy electrondiffraction (RHEED) materials characterization. Unlike most systems, the Discovery® Deposition System's unique configuration offers operational flexibility, efficiency, and control, allowing a range of applications and materials to be processed simultaneously. Because it is software...
Inductively Coupled Plasma High Resolution Mass Spectrometer
M Lizabeth Alexander (509) 371-6229
This high-resolution ICP-MS complements the isotopic capabilities of the Neptune by providing highly accurate and sensitive elemental concentrations of relevant samples. The high resolution of the Element II allows reduction of molecular interferences that can limit ICP-MS accuracies without collision cell or other similar methods. The high efficiency interface and the double-focusing ion optics of the Element II system additionally and importantly enable the ultimate in ICP-MS detection sensitivities to be attained (part-per-quadrillion level concentration detection limits are achievable)....
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer
Tom Wietsma (509) 371-6375
The Agilent 4500 Series inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is available for all research areas requiring analysis of trace metals in liquid samples. The equipment is equipped with an autosampler. Sample Preparation Options The laboratory that houses this instrument contains the necessary support items for sample preparation, including auto pippettes, a balance, nanopure water, and numerous calibration standards. All work with this ICP-MS and in the associated laboratory must be performed in compliance with EMSL practices and permits. Individuals may use this instrument...
Inductively Coupled Plasma Ultra-High Resolution Mass Spectrometer
David Koppenaal (509) 371-6549
The Exactive MS provides ultra-high resolution MS capability and will be coupled with elemental/isotopic ion sources to provide truly unique and singular high-resolution ICP-MS measurements well beyond the capability of the Element II ICP-MS. Groundbreaking work performed at PNNL has demonstrated resolution measurements of >200,000 R (m/∇m), compared to the maximum R=12,000 measurements obtained with the Element II system. Initial experiments with the Exactive have been targeted toward preliminary assessment of a novel, potentially significant new atomic ion source. It is a low-flow...
Influx Flow Cytometer
Galya Orr (509) 371-6127
The Influx, a one-of-a kind flow cytometer/cell sorter, provides powerful detection capabilities and diverse sorting approaches, incorporating cutting-edge technologies to support new sorting modes optimal for complex cell populations. For example, users can sort cells by their proportional DNA content, hybridized mRNA content, and specific protein or molecule content. Cells can be sorted in a two-dimensional pattern that replicates the pattern on a bivariate dot plot, enabling subset identification in complex mixtures of cells. Multiple collection options, including sorting directly into...
Ion Chromatograph
Tom Wietsma (509) 371-6375
This ion chromatography capability comprises two Dionex DX-500 modular chromatography systems that can be configured to conduct fully automated analysis of anions, organic acids, inorganic cations, ammonium, amines, and metals. The systems feature quaternary gradient pumps; autosamplers; thermostated column compartments; and conductivity, electrochemical, and ultraviolet detectors. The systems are also equipped with online eluent generators that eliminate the preparation of common eluents used in ion analysis. A wide variety of columns are available that can be optimized for specific...
Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer
Robby Robinson (509) 371-6341
We have several separation platforms combining liquid chromatography (LC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) based separations with TOF mass spectrometry for increased throughput and sensitivity in proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, natural organic matter, and others. These platforms are typically targeted for science questions requiring higher throughput analysis of biological systems or a structural based separation or analysis. Each separation technology, LC, IMS, and TOF-MS, are tailored to the specific application including optimized resolution, sensitivity, and throughput....
IR SNOM - Infrared Near-field Nanoimaging
Scott Lea (509) 371-6233
The scattering-type near-field optical microscope is truly a one-of-a-kind, state-of-the-art high resolution chemical imaging system developed through a partnership with Professor Markus Raschke at the University of Colorado-Boulder. It is designed to provide spectroscopic infrared vibrational near-field nanoimaging that provides ultrahigh spatial resolution down to 10 nm, vibrational spectral information in the 700 to 5000 cm-1 (14 to 2 µm) range, sensitivity down to the molecular level, and applicability under ambient and environmental conditions. This instrumentation enables temperature...
Laser Capture Microdissection
Dehong Hu (509) 371-6126
This Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) is equipped with 100 x objective lens for enriching distinct organelles, or isolating single cells from cell populations or tissue sections for further analyses. LCM provides the ability to capture individual cells from a tissue sample, and then image the cells to verify that the correct cells were harvested for down stream extraction of RNA or DNA. Cells are captured using a NIH-developed technique that uses an IR laser to attach a cap to the cells of interest. Larger samples can be collected by cutting out the area of interest with a UV laser and...
Liquid Chromatograph
Tom Wietsma (509) 371-6375
The Agilent 1100 Series liquid chromatography system is used for all research areas that require quantitative determination of nonvolatile and thermally labile chemicals. This instrument is equipped with three detectors: Photodiode array Refractive Index Detector variable wavelength detector Micromass Platform II mass spectrometer. A wide variety of columns also are available, depending on chromatography needs. Control, automation, and data handling are accomplished using either MassLynx™ NT® software, Hewlett Packard ChemStation, or the Agilent 1100 Series control module. PERFORMANCE...
Liquid helium cryo TEM The JEOL JEM-3000SFF was designed for high-resolution cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of biological samples and expands EMSL/PNNL capabilities in three important ways: First, the sample stage is cooled by liquid helium and reaches temperatures as low as 4 Kelvin which improves resistance to electron beam induced damage. Second, the 3000SFF has a top entry stage for insertion of TEM grids that is more stable and completely mitigates vibrational issues that can limit atomic resolution imaging for more conventional side entry microscopes. Third, the 3000SFF operates at an...
Low-Field EPR Spectrometer (X-band)
Eric Walter (509) 371-6873
The Bruker Elexsys 580 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer performs continuous wave and pulsed magnetic resonance using electron spins to selectively focus on certain types of molecules, such as free radicals and paramagnetic metal complexes, while ignoring the other components of the sample. Research using this spectrometer focuses on in situ experiments, making it a capability that is unique for user facilities.  As such, the instrument provides the researcher with the ability to: Obtain structural and redox information for samples containing paramagnetic metals, including...
Low-field Radiological EPR (X-band)
Eric Walter (509) 371-6873
The Bruker EMX electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer performs continuous-wave magnetic resonance using electron spins to selectively focus on certain types of molecules, such as free radicals and paramagnetic metal complexes, while ignoring the other components of the sample. Research using this CW-EPR spectrometer focuses on radiochemisty, making it a capability that is unique for user facilities. As such, the instrument provides the researcher with the ability to: Obtain structural and redox information for samples containing paramagnetic metals such as technetium. Observe...
Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Alan G Joly (509) 371-6158
This experimental facility couples an electrospray ionization source to a magnetic-bottle time-of-flight photoelectron spectrometer. It has been developed to investigate multiply charged anions and solution phase species in the gas phase. A low-temperature electrospray ion source, in which a solution sample containing the anions is sprayed through a syringe needle under negative bias, produces multiply charged anions. This facility features a low temperature ion trap, which can control ion temperature between 10 and 400K. This has significantly expanded our research capability and...
Mammalian Cell Culture
Galya Orr (509) 371-6127
At EMSL, researchers use the single-molecule fluorescence/patch clamp microscope to combine high-sensitivity fluorescence imaging simultaneously with physiological measurements to identify real-time molecular interactions and conformational changes of cell-membrane receptors and their functional consequences. The study of individual proteins in the membrane of living cells is enabled by the presence of a tissue culture facility adjacent to the microscopes. The facility supports the growth of eukaryotic primary cells or cell-lines, including human cell lines.
Mask Aligner
Ryan Kelly (509) 371-6525
Hardeep S Mehta (509) 371-6461
This instrument is newly available to EMSL users. For more information about this instrument and the science it will help enable, see the Microfabrication Capabilities details page [.pdf, 86kb]. 
Mass-Selected Ion Deposition System - Electrospray Source
Julia Laskin (509) 371-6136
The mass-selected ion deposition system is a new instrument constructed at EMSL. The apparatus, shown in Figure 1, includes a high-transmission electrospray ion source, quadrupole mass filter, bending quadrupole that deflects the ion beam and prevents neutral molecules originating in the ion source from impacting the surface, an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for ion deposition by soft landing, and a vacuum-lock system for introducing surfaces into the UHV chamber without breaking vacuum. Its design allows us to control soft landing energies (0-500 eV) and spot sizes from around 5 mm down to...
Microbeam Diffractometer
Tamas Varga (509) 371-6042
Mark Bowden (509) 371-7816
EMSL's microbeam diffractometer is a Rigaku rotating anode with micro focus optics, automated x-y stage, and a curved image plate detector. Both Cu and Cr anodes are available for use. With specialized optics and collimators, the highest spatial resolution is 10 microns; unfocused 500 microns. Two-dimensional detectors, such as curved image plate detectors, afford collection of a larger section of the Ewald sphere. This has many advantages, including decreased data collection time required for the same signal-to-noise ratio. Possible Sample Geometries Fiber mount — small particles or...
Microfabrication Laboratory - Clean Room
Ryan Kelly (509) 371-6525
EMSL's microfabrication laboratory provides a significant research and development capability for microstructures, microsensors, and microanalytical systems. Unlike highly automated industrial production equipment, EMSL's microfabrication equipment is flexible and multipurpose. The equipment supports a variety of microprocessing activities, including: Thin film deposition Thermal processing Microphotolithography Chemical etching Inspection and characterization Optical profilometry Bonding and packaging Testing and measurement. Equipment Description and Operational Overview EMSL's...
Molecular Beam Epitaxy Deposition System
Scott Chambers (509) 371-6517
Timothy C Droubay (509) 371-6488
EMSL's molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) deposition system is used for the synthesis and characterization of novel oxide, ceramic, and mineral materials as crystalline films. These materials are of significant interest in a variety of scientific and technological fields, including electronics, magnetics, magneto-optics, photonics, thermal and photo- catalysis, and geochemistry. EMSL's MBE deposition system consists of a PNNL-designed, customized MBE chamber with: An electron cyclotron resonance plasma gas source for O2 and/or N2 An ozone (O3) collection and delivery unit Four electron-beam...
Molecular Beam Scattering From Surfaces
Scott Smith (509) 371-6156
Molecular beam scattering from surfaces is a powerful experimental tool for studying the dynamics and kinetics of the interaction of molecules with surfaces. The coupling of surface science, molecular beam, and laser technologies makes possible the measurement of total energy disposal and redistribution in gas-surface scattering. Previously, these experimental methods were used to acquire detailed surface kinetics and state-to-state scattering measurements of molecules interacting with metallic substrates. While such experiments have resulted in a fairly detailed understanding of surface...
Mossbauer spectrometer
Ravi Kukkadapu (509) 371-6384
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a type of nuclear spectroscopy involving the resonant emission and absorption of γ-rays (i.e., the Mössbauer effect). The Mössbauer technique provides information about the valence state, coordination number, crystal field strengths (e.g., low spin and high spin Fe(III)), and magnetic ordering temperatures. In contrast to X-ray diffraction (XRD), it also provides information on compounds that do not exhibit long-range order (poorly crystalline or amorphous materials). Common Fe-oxide phases such as magnetite and hematite, are readily distinguished from each other...
Multimode Scanning Probe Microscope
Scott Lea (509) 371-6233
The Digital Instrument (DI) Nanoscope IIIa multimode scannning probe microscope is primarily used to obtain topographical information on nanostructures, nanodevices, and quantum dots; thin films (oxide surfaces, spintronics, magnetic storage, and semiconductors); geological and geochemical samples; protein and biomolecule structures at surfaces; and samples undergoing electrochemical and corrosion processes. Resolution ranges from the submicron-length scale (nanoscale) to the atomic level. This powerful instrument allows the user to obtain surface roughness statistics, image small nanosized...
nanoDESI
Alexander Laskin (509) 371-6129
Nano-DESI/HRMS analytical platform allows in-depth molecular characterization of very small samples of organic materials  (down to 10 ng) and volumes while maintaining high sensitivity and acquisition of mass spectra at high mass resolution. HPLC-PDA/HRMS platform is used for focused studies of light absorbing environmental organics. Both platforms are used in a variety of environmental research projects relevant to atmospheric aerosol chemistry, aquatic and soil chemistry, MS imaging of biological samples. Research Applications Atmospheric Aerosols Chemistry – molecular level...
Nanoimprinter
Ryan Kelly (509) 371-6525
This instrument is newly available to EMSL users. For more information about this instrument and the science it will help enable, see the Microfabrication Capabilities details page [.pdf, 86kb]. 
NanoSIMS
Zihua Zhu (509) 371-6240
EMSL's novel, new-generation ion microprobe extends high spatial resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analysis to extremely small areas (down to 50 nm) and volumes while maintaining high sensitivity (e.g., ppm in element imaging) at high mass resolution. NanoSIMS can measure up to seven ions in parallel, offering perfect isotopic ratio results from the same small volume for perfect image superimposition. NanoSIMS can be used for enhanced imaging of cellular structures; simultaneous imaging of elements/isotopes on minerals and soft surfaces at the nanoscale; and imaging...
Neptune Plus
M Lizabeth Alexander (509) 371-6229
The Neptune is a mid-resolution, multi-collector ICP-MS instrument capable of simultaneous collection of up to nine elemental/isotopic masses, allowing state-of-the-art determination of isotopic ratios across the periodic table. Installation and acceptance of this instrument was completed in February 2011. Although no research has been performed beyond an initial exploration of the Neptune's capabilities, potential users have been contacted in both the academic and DOE scientific communities. In addition, EMSL has initiated the process to purchase a custom laser ablation unit with an image...
Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer
Ljiljana Pasa-Tolic (509) 371-6585
Ron Moore (509) 371-6339
TBD
Photoemission Electron Microscope
Alan G Joly (509) 371-6158
EMSL's photo-emission electron microscope (PEEM) is capable of imaging nanoscale surface structures ( ~ 8 nm) via electron emission induced by ultraviolet and laser light sources. The PEEM is applied to surface science studies of individual nanostructures and catalytic sites on specially designed metal, semi-conducting, and metal oxide substrates. Because these sites are of nanometer dimension, EMSL selected the highest resolution PEEM available from the manufacturer, Elmitec. The Elmitec PEEM uses inherently low-aberration magnetic lens elements. A complementary suite of ultrafast lasers...
Pore-Scale Micromodels
Mart Oostrom (509) 372-6044
The pore-scale micromodel flow and transport lab is part of EMSL's Subsurface Flow and Transport Laboratory (SFTL) with a focus on coupled (multiphase) flow, diffusion, and reactions processes at the microscopic scale (μm to cm) that affect the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and geological sequestration of CO2. The pore-scale micromodel laboratory features a variety of tools for scientific users, including: A HORIBA Jobin Yvon Raman spectroscopy system with 532- and 632-nm lasers combined with a Nikon Eclipse Ti epifluorescence microscope for mineral and microbe...
Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer
M Lizabeth Alexander (509) 371-6229
A time series of toluene measurements (every 15 sec. with dwell time of 2 sec.) as the Battelle G-1 aircraft flew west across Seattle towards the town of Bremerton. The black trace shows the 0.1 to 3 um particle concentration while the red trace gives the 3 - 20 nm particle concentration. The 3-20 nm particle size range is indicative of newly formed particles. The spike in this size range at 2:48 PM coincides with a spike in toluene concentration, suggesting evidence for the role of anthropogenic hydrocarbons in new particle formation. EMSL's field-deployable Proton Transfer Reaction Mass...
Pulsed Laser Deposition System
Timothy C Droubay (509) 371-6488
EMSL's pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system is designed for epitaxial growth of oxide, ceramic, or synthetic mineral thin films and is composed of the following: An electro-polished stainless-steel chamber pumped via a turbo molecular pump and backed by a rotary scroll dry pump An excimer laser (KrF) for excitation at 248 nm Three standard mass flow control units for precise and reproducible process gas flow during deposition An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma gas source Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) for real-time monitoring of the surface structure and...
Radiological Atomic Force Microscope
Kevin M. Rosso (509) 371-6357
EMSL's Digital Instruments Radiological BioScope™ Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) allows radiological samples to be examined in fluids or air with little or no sample preparation and can be used to examine heterophase processes on mineral surfaces and to image three dimensional topography of radiological samples. The microscope supports all major AFM-imaging techniques and modes, including contact and intermittent contact (TappingMode™) force-volume, lateral force, force modulation, phase, lift, etc. The controller enables simultaneous acquisition through up to four independent data...
Radiological Electron Microprobe
Bruce Arey (509) 371-6485
Housed in EMSL's Radiochemistry Annex, the field emission electron microprobe (EMP) enables chemical analysis and imaging of radionuclides with high spatial resolution in radioactive samples. The EMP allows non-destructive imaging and compositional elemental analysis of solid-phase materials at high spatial resolution with parts per million sensitivity to aid in analysis of inorganic and radionuclide fate and transport in geochemical systems. Its cathodoluminescence capabilities affords identification of episodic growth in minerals. Initial experiments conducted on natural samples from the...
Radiological FIB/SEM
Bruce Arey (509) 371-6485
Scott Lea (509) 371-6233
The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is a new-generation SEM that can image samples under controlled environments and temperatures. Three-dimensional section analysis morphology, focused ion beam, electron backscattering diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis make this a versatile instrument for the user program. This instrument provides added capability in SEM imaging with an advanced ability to analyze wet and insulating materials as well as samples at elevated temperatures under controlled gaseous environments. This instrument: Provides precise 3D imaging and...
Radiological Transmission Electron Microscope
Scott Lea (509) 371-6233
Located in the Radiochemistry Annex, the JEM-ARM200CF transmission electron microscope (TEM) enables atomic resolution of biogeochemical spatial associations, mineral identification and oxidation state determination of radiological samples. The JEM-ARM200CF TEM enables structure analysis with atomic resolution in TEM and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) modes. Furthermore, it allows elemental and chemical bonding analysis of single atomic columns via energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) from Gatan and the Gatan digital...
Radiological XPS
Mark Engelhard (509) 371-6494
Housed in the EMSL Radiochemistry Annex, the AXIS Ultra X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) integrates a magnetic immersion lens and charge neutralization system with the spherical mirror and concentric hemispherical analyzers. The hemispherical analyzer includes a delay-line detector (DLD) for state-of-the-art spectroscopic energy resolution and detection sensitivity. Small spot capabilities (<15µm) are achieved via a series of selected area apertures used in combination with the magnetic and electrostatic lenses. In parallel imaging mode photoelectrons are transferred to the patented...
Scanning Multiprobe Surface Analysis System
Shuttha Shutthanandan (509) 371-6530
The SMSAS is a multi-technique surface analysis instrument based on elemental mapping using either scanning small spot X-rays or the electronics in the analyzer. This scanning technology provides high-performance micro-area spectroscopy, chemical imaging, and secondary electron imaging with high spatial resolution. For X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), this system will include a: Monochromatic, high-resolution Al X-ray source Non-monochromatic dual-anode X-ray source High-resolution hemispherical analyzer. In addition, the system will include an intense He lamp for ultraviolet...
Scanning Probe Dynamic Force Atomic Force Microscope
Kevin M. Rosso (509) 371-6357
The Asylum MFP-3D BIO is a versatile atomic force microscope (AFM) that combines molecular resolution imaging and picoNewton force-based measurements on an inverted optical microscope. It is designed specifically for biological applications and can be used to: Study individual protein or DNA molecules in situ Image the surface of living cells Measure the adhesive forces of proteins on cell surfaces Conduct single-molecule force spectroscopy of single DNA, protein, and polysaccharide molecules Conduct nanolithography and manipulation of samples on the nanometer and picoNewton scale. With the...
Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscope
Kevin M. Rosso (509) 371-6357
EMSL's Molecular Imaging, Inc. PicoSPM™ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)/atomic force microscopy (AFM) supports a wide range of scanning-probe techniques used to examine surfaces of diverse materials such as conductive and nonconductive minerals, bacterial biofilms, and self-assembled protein monolayers. The microscope incorporates temperature control, fluid cells, and an environmental chamber that collectively allow imaging of air- and moisture-sensitive samples under controlled conditions. The microscope supports most AFM imaging techniques, including contact and intermittent-contact...
Scanning X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer Microprobe
Mark Engelhard (509) 371-6494
The Physical Electronics Instruments (PHI) Quantum 2000 X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) is a unique system that uses a focused monochromatic aluminum K X-ray beam that can be varied in size from as small as 10 μm in diameter to approximately 200 μm. The beam can be rastered over larger areas (about 0.5 mm2). The PHI Quantum 2000 XPS features: A focused X-ray beam (10 μm to 200 μm) Beam raster capability to millimeter sizes Optical- (charge-coupled diode camera) and X-ray-generated electron images (scanned X-ray image-SXI) to select areas of analysis A special specimen holder for angle...
Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscope (S/TEM)
Chongmin Wang (509) 371-6268
Scott Lea (509) 371-6233
EMSL's aberration-corrected Titan 80-300™ scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) provides high-resolution imaging with sub-angstrom resolution and spectroscopic capabilities. This state-of-the-art instrument is equipped with a Schottky field-emission electron source, an electron gun monochromator, a CEOS hexapole spherical aberration corrector for the probe-forming lens, a high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector, an X-Ray Spectrometer (EDS) and a high-resolution GIF. The selection of electron energy between 80kV and 300kV enables optimized imaging for a variety of materials...
Single-Molecule Flourescence/Patch Clamp Microscope
Galya Orr (509) 371-6127
At EMSL, researchers use the single-molecule fluorescence/patch clamp microscope to combine high-sensitivity fluorescence imaging simultaneously with physiological measurements to identify real-time molecular interactions and conformational changes of cell-membrane receptors and their functional consequences. This system is one of the few worldwide that provides the sensitivity needed to quantify molecular interactions at the level of single or few molecules simultaneously with the functional outcome of these interactions. Constructed by EMSL scientists using commercial components, the...
Special Application X-ray Diffraction
Tamas Varga (509) 371-6042
Mark Bowden (509) 371-7816
All work involving the following systems and any experiments conducted in EMSL laboratories must be performed in compliance with EMSL practices and permits. The special applications X-ray diffractometer is a PANalytical X'Pert MPD system with a vertical Θ-Θ goniometer (220 mm radius). The X-ray source is a long-fine-focus, ceramic X-ray tube with Cu anode. Normal operating power is 45 kV, 40 mA (1.8 kW). This instrument is equipped with two beam paths: focusing and parallel beam optics. The focusing optics consist of programmable divergence, anti-scatter, and receiving slits; incident and...
Spectrometer: Fluorimeter
Zheming Wang (509) 371-6349
EMSL's SPEX Fluorolog 2 is a high-sensitivity fluorescence spectrometer used for measuring excitation and emission spectra of solids and solutions. The instrument is equipped with single photon counting capabilities in the ultraviolet and visible, with maximum instrument efficiency ranging from 200 nm to 700 nm. Fluorescence detection can be extended into the infrared (0.8 μm to 1.7 μm) with use of a liquid nitrogen cooled germanium detector. All work with this instrument and in EMSL labs must be performed in compliance with EMSL practices and permits. The instrument's built-in light source...
Spectrometer: Mossbauer: CCR3
Ravi Kukkadapu (509) 371-6384
More information to come on the CCR3 Mossbauer Spectrometer.
SPLAT II
Alla Zelenyuk (509) 371-6155
SPLAT II is a second-generation Single Particle Laser Ablation Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. A high-precision and unique instrument, it allows users to study the fundamental processes that govern the chemistry and physics of particles on the nano- and micro-scales. SPLAT II's applications include but are not limited to climate, air pollution, human health, bioterrorism, and emerging nanotechnologies. Portability is a hallmark of SPLAT II—it is the first field-deployable instrument that provides, in real time, the size, density, shape, fractal dimension, and composition of individual...
Sum Frequency High-Resolution Spectrometer (SFV-VS)
Hongfei Wang (509) 371-6717
Theva Thevuthasan (509) 371-6244
Recently built and only available at EMSL, this customized SFG-VS spectrometer employs the synchronization of a 100-picosecond amplifier laser, which provides unprecedented spectral resolution, and a <40 femtosecond amplifier laser, which provides sufficient ultrabroad infrared spectral coverage, making it the first instrument in the world to provide <1 cm-1 spectral resolution in the surface vibrational spectrum with sub-monolayer sensitivity. In comparison to scanning systems, the broadband SFG-VS spectrometer provides fast and accurate line shape measurement in the surface...
Sum Frequency High-Resolution Surface Spectroscopy
Hongfei Wang (509) 371-6717
Theva Thevuthasan (509) 371-6244
This customized SFG-VS spectrometer incorporates unique polarization and incident angle control to enable versatile measurement of the surface vibrational spectroscopy of various molecular interfaces with submonolayer sensitivity. The spectral resolution of this system is about 4-6 cm-1, significantly better than most other broadband SFG-VS spectrometers, which typically have a spectral resolution of ˜15 cm-1. This robust and easy-to-use system is meant to work together with the FemtoPico HR-BB-SFG-VS spectrometer for routine SFG-VS measurements and screening samples. Work published in the ...
Surfaces/Solids Instrumentation with Lasers
Alan G Joly (509) 371-6158
EMSL offers a suite of instrumentation dedicated to understanding photoreactivity in the condensed phase, on surfaces, and at material interfaces. In addition, a variety of continuous wave and pulsed laser sources are available that are capable of providing tailored photoexcitation from the extreme ultraviolet through mid-infrared. Pulse durations of these instruments range from several nanoseconds to less than 100 femtoseconds. Laser desorption and ablation from surfaces is a powerful experimental tool used for studying the energetics and dynamics of the interaction of molecules with...
Time of Flight Secondary Ion (TOF SIMS) Mass Spectrometer
Julia Laskin (509) 371-6136
  The Physical Electronics Instruments (PHI) Model T2100 time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) is used to perform research activities such as: Identifying organic overlayers or contamination spots or layers on diverse surfaces ranging from mineral grains to silicon chips Simultaneous mapping of the surface distribution of elements or molecules within an area of 10 x 10 to 400 x 400 microns or more, often in combination with identifying elements or molecules Identifying depth distribution of elements within materials such as thin films or in particles deposited on a...
Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer
Zihua Zhu (509) 371-6240
This ultrahigh vacuum surface analytical system is designed to examine surface structure, composition, and chemical state by means of secondary ion detection during ion sputtering. The instrument will be furnished with a C60 ion gun, a liquid metal ion gun with Bin+sources, and a Cs+/O2+ sputter ion gun with emission current stabilizers. The capabilities include surface spectroscopy with high sensitivity and mass resolution, surface imaging with high lateral resolution, depth profiling with high depth resolution, and 3-D analysis. The ability to provide cluster ions, such as Bin+ and C60+,...
Total Organic Carbon Analyzer
Tom Wietsma (509) 371-6375
The carbon analyzer is used to analyze total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), total organic carbon (TOC), purgeable organic carbon (POC), and non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC) in solid or liquid samples. The system comprises a Shimadzu TOC-5000A TOC analyzer, a Shimadzu ASI-5000A autosampler, and a Shimdazu SSM-5000A solid sample module. The TOC-5000A has ultralow sensitivity and measures from 4 ppb to 4000 ppm of total carbon and 4 ppb to 5000 ppm of inorganic carbon. This instrument meets the needs of ultrapure industries, research facilities, and high salt requirements of marine...
Transient Kinetic Analysis
Janos Szanyi (509) 371-6524
EMSL recently constructed a transient kinetic analysis (TKA) apparatus (in collaboration with the University of Washington) to elucidate reaction mechanisms and identify the rate-determining steps in heterogeneous catalysis for processes related to reactions of the hydrogen economy. Systems of interest include, but are not limited to, reforming of small oxygenates, PROX, and water-gas shift chemistries. These investigations are made possible using an apparatus that can perform a transient interrogation of catalyst-adsorbed species by rapid-scan transmission Fourier-transform ion resonance (...
Ultra-high Vacuum, Low-temperature Scanning Probe Microscope Instrument, or UHV LT SPM
Igor Lyubinetsky (509) 371-6267
EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, low-temperature scanning probe microscope instrument, or UHV LT SPM, is the preeminent system dedicated to surface chemistry and physics at low temperatures down to 5 K. Operating at low temperatures provides high mechanical stability, superior vacuum conditions, and negligible drift for long-term experiments. With thermal diffusion being entirely suppressed, stable imaging becomes possible even for weakly bound species. The system is primarily used for probingsingle-site chemical reactivity, while the combination with a hyperthermal molecular beam allows the study...
Variable Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope
Igor Lyubinetsky (509) 371-6267
EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, variable-temperature scanning probe microscope system, or UHV VT SPM, is a state-of-the-art surface science tool comprising multiple complementary probes. It offers atomic-resolution imaging in a temperature range of 50-500 K with a continuous and fast temperature variation and under UHV conditions. This instrument is primarily used to study model catalytic systems and associated surface thermal and photochemistry at ambient and elevated temperatures, including various anifestations of adsorption dynamics, such as precursor states, transient motion of dissociated...
Variable Temperature Ultra-High Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Zdenek Dohnalek (509) 371-6150
The Omicron variable temperature ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (VTSTM) is designed to study the structure of both clean and adsorbate-covered solid surfaces. As a real space probe, emphasis is placed on examining defect structures and understanding their role in heterogeneous chemical processes. Sample temperatures during imaging can nominally range from 30 K to 1500 K. At low temperatures, even weakly bound adsorbates can be imaged due to the reduced thermal diffusion. Sample Preparation, Handling, and Characterization The system is equipped with a sample load-lock...
X-ray Computed Tomography
Tamas Varga (509) 371-6042
Mark Bowden (509) 371-7816
X-ray computed tomography (XCT) of subsurface geological field cores affords visualization of pore structure and connectivity at the tens of microns spatial resolution for large-diameter cores. The large sample environment size and various X-ray targets available allows in situ experiments of fluid displacements studies, such as non-aqueous phase organic or supercritical CO2. Experiments are conducted to study pore connectivity in natural rocks and sedimentary cores from the Hanford Site and provide complementary data that enhance EMSL's other Subsurface Flow and Transport capabilities. The...
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
Mark Engelhard (509) 371-6494
Manjula Nandasiri 509/371-6079
The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) imaging system provides fast, uantitative, real-time parallel imaging with highest resolution spectroscopy at all analysis areas. In addition, the system is equipped with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), a cluster/Ar+ ion gun, and a five-axis automated stage with variable temperature sample environment at the analysis chamber. The system is also integrated with a radial distribution chamber (RDC), a full-size glove box, and a cold-stage at the sample...
XPS Imaging System
Mark Engelhard (509) 371-6494
Manjula Nandasiri 509/371-6079
The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) imaging system provides fast, uantitative, real-time parallel imaging with highest resolution spectroscopy at all analysis areas. In addition, the system is equipped with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), a cluster/Ar+ ion gun, and a five-axis automated stage with variable temperature sample environment at the analysis chamber. The system is also integrated with a radial distribution chamber (RDC), a full-size glove box, and a cold-stage at the sample...
XPS with Laser Interface
Alan G Joly (509) 371-6158
This ultrahigh vacuum machine can be applied as a routine means for analyzing the structure and chemical state of surface and near-surface constituents with a spatial resolution of 10 μm and an energy resolution of less than 0.2 eV. It is equipped with state-of-the art charge neutralization and charge balance capability, so that not only conducting and semi-conducting materials may be sampled, but wide-band gap, non-conducting materials (minerals, metal-oxides, ceramics, etc.) also may be analyzed. Special modifications include several quartz and lithium fluoride laser ports, such that...