Publication DetailsCellular Recognition and Trafficking of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles by Macrophage Scavenger Receptor A.
Orr G, WB Chrisler, KJ Cassens, R Tan, BJ Tarasevich, LM Markillie, RC Zangar, and BD Thrall.2011."Cellular Recognition and Trafficking of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles by Macrophage Scavenger Receptor A."Nanotoxicology 5(3):296-311. doi:10.3109/17435390.2010.513836
The internalization of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into cells is known to involve active transport mechanisms, yet the precise biological molecules involved are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the uptake of amorphous silica ENPs (92 nm) by macrophage cells is strongly inhibited by silencing expression of scavenger receptor A (SR-A). In addition, ENP uptake is augmented by introducing SR-A expression into human cells that are normally non-phagocytic. Confocal fluorescent microscopy analyses show that the majority of single or small clusters of silica ENPs co-localize intracellularly with SR-A and are internalized through a pathway characteristic of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In contrast, larger silica NP agglomerates (>500 nm) are poorly co-localized with the receptor, suggesting independent trafficking or internalization pathways are involved. SR-A silencing also caused decreased cellular secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to silica ENPs. As SR-A is expressed in macrophages throughout the reticulo-endothelial system, this pathway is likely an important determinant of the biodistribution of, and cellular response to ENPs.