Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

A DOE Office of Science User Facility

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Environmental TEM

EMSL's environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) is a state-of-the-art, Cs-corrected field emission gun (FEG) scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with an Environmental Cell infrastructure for controlled gas inlet into the sample/holder area and analysis of the chemical composition of the atmosphere in this area. The ETEM will allow researchers to perform microscopic and spectroscopic in situ measurements relevant to catalytic and geochemical studies important to energy and environmental applications and is expected to answer important questions about the interfacial and defect control of catalytic reactions and the chemical nature of nanoparticles.

The ETEM enables imaging of the sample in a controlled gaseous environment, permitting researchers to investigate the fundamental atomic mechanisms of gas–solid reactions. The Environmental Cell is equipped with in situ vacuum system and controlled gas-inlet system for introducing up to four gases into the probe. The setup allows for accurate control of the gas stream(s) and for fine-tuning the composition of the mixture that flows into the probe. A mass spectrometer is included for monitoring the composition of outlet gases. Titan ETEM's special vacuum system enables imaging of a sample under gas pressures up to 20 mbar while maintaining a workable high vacuum in the rest of the TEM column and FEG. As the Environmental Cell is flooded with gas, the sample can be heated up to, at least, 1000°C. A built-in plasma cleaner offers efficient cleaning of the column, affording fast and reliable switching between ETEM and high-vacuum operation modes.

Watch this video to learn how the ETEM can accelerate your research.

Libor Kovarik, E-TEM

 

Instrument ID:
34180
Availability: 10 hours a day, 5 days a week
Facility: Quiet Wing

Custodians

Libor Kovarik (509) 375-4377 Libor.Kovarik@pnnl.gov

Publications

Sodium yttrium fluoride (NaYF4) is an important upconverting material with many potential uses in chemistry, materials science, and biology, which...
Black carbon absorbs solar radiation, leading to a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on climate. A key challenge in modeling and quantifying BCâ...
Although highly cold-worked UNS N06690 has been shown to be susceptible to stress corrosion crack growth in pressurized water reactor primary water,...
Magnetic core-shell microspheres were developed to extract rare earth elements (REEs) from aqueous and brine solutions with up to 99.99% removal...
The discontinuous precipitation (DP) mechanism is prevalent in over 80 alloy systems. We report a new type of DP occurring along prior -UMo grain...
Environmental transmission electron microscopy was employed to probe transformations in the size, morphology, and composition of individual...
In recent years, atom probe tomography (APT) has been increasingly used to study minerals, and in particular the mineral zircon. Zircon (ZrSiO4) is...
Germanium (Ge) nanowires coated with an amorphous silicon (Si) shell undergoing lithiation and delithiation were studied using in situ transmission...
Corrosion and cracking represent critical failure mechanisms for structural materials in many applications. Although a crack can often be seen with...
Sources and chemical composition of the brown carbon are poorly understood, and even less is known about the mechanisms of its atmospheric...
The experimental atom probe tomography results from two different specimen orientations (top-down and side-ways) of a high oxygen ion conducting...
The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both...
Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from syngas is under investigation again due to the desire for less dependency from imports and the...
Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (...
ZnO nanoparticles with differing dominant facets were prepared and characterized by a complimentary of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, electron...
The understanding of the atomic-scale structural and chemical ordering in supported nanosized alloy particles is fundamental for achieving active...
Oxidation of alloy often involves chemical partition and injection of vacancies. Chemical partition is the consequence of selective oxidation, while...
Amorphous germanium (a-Ge) nanowires have great potential for application as anodes in Na-ion batteries. However, the Na-Ge reaction is much less...
Dislocation imaging using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been an invaluable tool for characterizing crystallographic defects in metals....
We have designed, fabricated, and tested a compact gas-phase reactor for performing in situ soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM)...
Specific chemical and physical properties of volcanic ash particles that could affect their ability to induce ice formation are poorly understood....
Perovskite-based solar cells are one of the emerging candidates for radically lower cost photovoltaics. Herein, we report on the synthesis and...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) known for their harmful health effects undergo long-range transport (LRT) when adsorbed on and/or absorbed in...
In atom probe tomography (APT), accurate reconstruction of the spatial positions of field evaporated ions from measured detector patterns depends...
Gamma-phase lithium aluminate (gamma-LiAlO2) is a breeder material for tritium, a necessary substance for strategic stockpile and fusion power...
The selective oxidation of Ni-5Cr and Ni-4Al alloys is evaluated during high (800°C) and low (420°C) temperature exposures with the oxygen partial...
This communication reports the influence of alkylation reaction byproducts, particularly HCl, on MOF-5 with unusual structural transformation to...
Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made...
Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water soluble...
In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out to observe directly in real time the lithiation and delithiation of silicon (...
For oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over alloy electrocatalysts, the understanding of how the atomic arrangement of the metal species in the...
Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si...
Photodynamic therapy has been used for several decades in the treatment of solid tumors through the generation of reactive singlet-oxygen species (...
Here in, we report a facile strategy for the synthesis of water-soluble ultra-fine blue emitting ?uorescent Magnesium nanoparticles-protein complex (...
SBA-15 silica supported rhenium catalysts were synthesized using solution-based atomic layer deposition method, and their activity and stability were...
To utilize high-capacity Si anodes in next-generation Li-ion batteries, the physical transformations during the Li-Si reaction must be better...
Recently, airborne soil organic particles (ASOP) were reported as a type of solid organic particles emitted after water droplets impacted wet soils....
Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on ?-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic...
The ability to detect and intervene in DNA assembly, disassembly, and enzyme cutting processes in a solution phase requires effective signal...
High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr...
The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery...
This manuscript presents an overview of the most recent instrument developments, field and laboratory applications of mass spectrometry (MS) in...
Knowledge of the spatially-resolved composition of atmospheric particles is essential for differentiating between their surface versus bulk chemistry...
Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal (PT) cancer therapy has been a major focus in nanomedicine due to its potential as an effective, non-invasive, and...
Simulated diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) consisting of 2.5% Pd were prepared on ?-Al2O3 and lanthanastabilized ?-Al2O3; it was found that the La-...
Mesoporous materials synthesized from commercial ferrierite (MMZ-FER) were applied to butanol dehydration. The MMZ-FER was produced by disassembling...
Under anoxic conditions, soluble 99TcO4– can be reduced to less soluble TcO2•nH2O, but the oxide is highly susceptible to reoxidation. Here we...
The dissolution of Tc(IV) sulfide and concurrent transformation of sulfidated ZVI during 2 oxidation were examined. Kinetic data obtained with 10 mL...
The early-stage oxidation of Ni (001) thin films alloyed with 10 or 20 at% Cr at 700 °C has been directly visualized using environmental...
Micro and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks were synthesized using a single tetrahedral building block and their catalytic properties towards...
Silicon is an attractive high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, but a comprehensive understanding of the massive ~300% volume change and...
Elucidating the kinetics and mechanisms of heteroepitaxial nucleation and growth at mineral-water interfaces is essential to understanding surface...
Vacancy injection and selective oxidation of one specie in bimetallic alloy at high temperature is a well-known phenomenon. However, detailed...
Isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) can contribute substantially to organic aerosol (OA) concentrations in forested...
The feasibility of using an online thermal-desorption electron-ionization high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for the detection of...
New insights into the structure of the calcite-water interface are obtained through direct model-independent comparison of multiple classical...
Changes in the ice nucleation characteristics of atmospherically relevant mineral dust particles due to nitric acid coating are not well understood....
While conformal and wearable devices have become one of the most desired formats for printable electronics, it is challenging to establish a scalable...
Pertechnetate was slowly reduced in a natural, untreated arid sediment under anaerobic conditions (0.02 nmol g-1 h-1), which could occur in low...
In this study we examine feasibility for steam reforming the mixed oxygenate aqueous fraction derived from mildly hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-...
The influence of grain boundary Cr carbides on the intergranular oxidation behavior of a Ni-16Cr alloy is considered using atomistic-to-mesoscale...
In this work, we investigated the phase transformation of ? Al2O3 to ? Al2O3 by ethanol TPD and XRD. Ethanol TPD showed remarkable sensitivity...
High-resolution characterizations of intergranular attack in alloy 600 (Ni-17Cr-9Fe) exposed to 325 °C simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR)...
Atmospheric Brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental...
Exchange of atmospheric organic compounds between gas and particle phases is important in the production and chemistry of particle-phase mass but is...
Abstract It is found that the spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, corresponding to the surface exchanged molybdenum species in Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts is...
Homogenous catalysts utilize discrete molecular species which imparts high selectivity and facilitates mechanistic understanding, but encounter...
Intergranular oxidation of a Ni-4Al alloy exposed to hydrogenated, high-temperature water was characterized using directly correlated transmission...
Lattice disorder and compositional changes in InxGa1-xN (x=0.32, 0.47, 0.7, 0.8 and 1.0) films on GaN/Al2O3 substrates, induced by room-temperature...
Bio-mass conversion has attracted increasing research interests to produce bio-fuels with bio-ethanol being a major product. Development of advanced...
Systems comprising of multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the warm syngas cleanup of coal- and biomass-derived syngas....
Constituents of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric aerosols are often mixed with inorganic components and compose a signi?cant...
Nanoscale solute partitioning across multiple constituent phases in a 980 grade quenched and partitioned (Q&P) steel was analyzed using atom...
Understanding of the atomic-scale structure is essential for exploiting the unique catalytic properties of any nanoalloy catalyst. This report...
Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles....
We report in situ atomic-scale visualization of the dynamical three-dimensional (3D) growth of NiO during initial oxidation of Ni-10at%Cr using...
Metal organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various...
Exchange of atmospheric organic compounds between gas and particle phases is important in the production and chemistry of particle-phase mass but is...
We present a systematic study of the effect of the number of methyl (Me) and cyclohexyl (Cy) functional groups in monodentate phosphine ligands on...
Managing water is critical for industrial applications including CO2 capture, catalysis, bio-oil separations and energy storage. Various classes of...
A monocrystalline In0.18Ga0.82N film of ~275 nm in thickness grown on a GaN/Al2O3 substrate was irradiated with 290 MeV 238U32+ ions to a fluence of...
Amorphous germanium (a-Ge) nanowires have great potential for application as anodes in Na-ion batteries. However, the Na-Ge reaction is much less...
Uranium ores mined for industrial use are typically acid-leached to produce yellowcake and then converted into uranium halides for enrichment and...
The corrosion of aluminum current collectors and the oxidation of solvents at a relatively high potential have been widely investigated with an aim...
Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal (PT) cancer therapy has been a major focus in nanomedicine due to its potential as an effective, non-invasive, and...
The activated sludge treatments combined to the addition of ferric chloride is commonly used to eliminate nitrate and phosphate from waste water in...
Isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) can contribute substantially to organic aerosol (OA) concentrations in forested...
The crystallography of transition Al2O3 has been extensively studied in the past due to the advantageous properties of the oxide in catalytic and a...
Perovskite-based solar cells are one of the emerging candidates for radically lower cost photovoltaics. Herein, we report on the synthesis and...
Doped Si-Ge nanowire (NW) heterojunctions were grown using the vapor-liquid-solid method with AuGa and Au catalyst particles. Transmission electron...
ZnO nanoparticles with differing dominant facets were prepared and characterized by a complimentary of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, electron...
Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service temperature...
Atom probe tomography (APT) is a mass spectrometry based on time-of-flight measurements which also concurrently produces 3D spatial information. The...
Germanium (Ge) nanowires coated with an amorphous silicon (Si) shell undergoing lithiation and delithiation were studied using in situ transmission...
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs); also known as porous coordination polymers (PCP) are a class of porous crystalline materials constructed by...
Airborne organic particles play a critical role in the Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. These...
Lithium solid electrolytes are a promising platform for achieving high energy density, long-lasting, and safe rechargeable batteries, which could...
Uranium analysis is consistently needed throughout the fuel cycle, from mining to fuel fabrication to environmental monitoring. Although most of the...
Here in, we report a facile strategy for the synthesis of water-soluble ultra-fine blue emitting fluorescent Magnesium nanoparticles-protein complex (...
In this study we report on a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide type catalyst capable of converting a syngas-derived C2+ mixed oxygenate feedstock to isobutene-...
The electrochemical interface between the solid electrode and liquid electrolyte has long been studied because of its importance in electrical energy...
Using single crystalline In2Se3 nanowires as a platform, we have studied the RESET switching (from low to high electrical resistance) in this phase-...
Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and play an important role in the...
In atom probe tomography (APT), accurate reconstruction of the spatial positions of field evaporated ions from measured detector patterns depends...
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces often results in partial loss of charge that may affect the structure and reactivity of deposited...
The capacity, Coulombic efficiency, rate, and cyclability of a Li-O2 battery critically depend on the electrode reaction mechanism and the structure/...
We report in situ atomic-scale visualization of the dynamical three-dimensional (3D) growth of NiO during initial oxidation of Ni-10at%Cr using...
Polycrystalline 3C-SiC was sequentially irradiated at 400 and 750˚C with 120 keV He2+ and 4 MeV Kr15+ ions to E21 and 4E20 ions/m2 with profiles of...
The experimental atom probe tomography results from two different specimen orientations (top-down and side-ways) of a high oxygen ion conducting...
This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in...
The early-stage oxidation of Ni (001) thin films alloyed with 10 or 20 at% Cr at 700 °C has been directly visualized using environmental transmission...
Cathode materials that can cycle > 1 Li+ per transition metal are of substantial interest to increase the overall energy density of lithium-ion...
The cathode material Li1.5Ni0.25Mn0.75O2.5 was synthesized through a solid-state reaction. In-situ high energy X-ray diffraction, STEM and...
In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out to observe directly in real time the lithiation and delithiation of silicon (...
The dissolution of boehmite is a technical issue for the Al industry because of its recalcitrant nature. In fact, a similar problem exists with...
Layered lithium transition metal oxides (LTMO) are promising candidate cathode materials for next generation high energy density lithium ion battery...
This paper describes the results of a systematic experimental investigation of the influence of different size cationic ammonium ligands and...
The development of environmental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has enabled in situ experiments in a gaseous environment with high resolution...
Lithium (Li)- and manganese-rich (LMR) layered-structure materials are very promising cathodes for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However...
Analysis of the mean Fe ion charge state from laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite (Fe3O4) reveals unexpected trends as a function of laser...
Atmospheric Brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental...
Spectrum-processing software that incorporates a gaussian smoothing kernel within the statistics of first-order Kalman filtration has been developed...
We report the design and evaluation of a new high-intensity electrospray ionization source for ion soft-landing experiments. The source incorporates...
We report a collision-induced dissociation (CID) investigation of the mixed addenda polyoxometalate (POM) anions, PMo12-nWnO403- (n = 0-12). The...
The prevalent approach to developing new nanomaterials is a trial and error process of iteratively altering synthesis procedures and then...
Changes in the ice nucleation characteristics of atmospherically relevant mineral dust particles due to nitric acid coating are not well understood....
The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery...
Electrolytic spray deposition was used to pattern surfaces with 2D metallic nanostructures. Spots that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were...
Extensive research efforts have been invested in reducing model errors to improve the predictive ability of biogeochemical earth and environmental...
Li- and Mn-rich (LMR) material is a very promising cathode for lithium ion batteries because of their high theoretical energy density (~900 Wh kg-1)...
Mn doped SrTiO3 shows promising magnetic and electrical properties, but the doping mechanism remains unclear. In this research Mn4+ is found to...
Zeolites are microporous crystalline aluminosilicates, which are widely used in a variety of commercial applications, including but not limited to...
LiFePO4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention...
Specific chemical and physical properties of volcanic ash particles that could affect their ability to induce ice formation are poorly understood....
The fundamental mechanisms underlying the superior radiation tolerance properties of oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels and nanostructured...
Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient...
Widespread use of silver nanoparticles raises questions of environmental impact and toxicity. Both silver particles and silver ions formed by...
A kinetically-limited physical synthesis method based on magnetron sputtering and gas aggregation has been coupled with size-selection and ion soft...
While conformal and wearable devices have become one of the most desired formats for printable electronics, it is challenging to establish a scalable...
Increasing concentrations of H2 with depth were observed across a geologic unconformity and associated redox transition zone in the subsurface at the...
Images of La-exchanged NaY zeolite obtained with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) show that about 80% of the La...
Silicon (Si)-based materials hold promise as the next-generation anodes for high-energy lithium (Li)-ion batteries. Enormous research efforts have...
This article presents a personal perspective regarding the development of key concepts in understanding hyperthermal collisions of polyatomic ions...
Types of nickel sites as a function of preparation method have received much attention in the literature. In this work, two preparation methods,...
For next-generation rechargeable batteries, magnesium is of great interest as an alternative to Lithium due to its relative abundance, low toxicity,...
Vacancy injection and selective oxidation of one specie in bimetallic alloy at high temperature is a well-known phenomenon. However, detailed...
Photodynamic therapy has been used for several decades in the treatment of solid tumors through the generation of reactive singlet-oxygen species (...
Since the advent of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), continuing efforts have been made to image material under native and reaction...
Herein, we employ a combination of reduction synthesis in solution, soft landing of mass-selected precursor and product ions, and in situ time-of-...
Capacity and voltage fading of Li2MnO3 is a major challenge for the application of this category of material, which is believed to be associated with...
Magnetron sputtering of two independent Pt and Ru targets coupled with inert gas aggregation in a modified commercial source has been combined with...
Many aspects of U(VI) behavior in sediments that are previously exposed to acidic waste fluids for sufficiently long times to induce significant...
The compound LaCa2Fe3O8, also known as the Grenier phase, is known to undergo an order-disorder transformation (ODT) at high temperatures and...
Charge Compensation in rare-earth Praseodymium (Pr3+) doped SrTiO3 plays an important role in determining the overall photoluminescence properties of...
The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process of semiconductor nanowire growth is an attractive approach to low-dimensional materials and heterostructures...
We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D...
Redox-reactive, biogeochemical phases generated by reductive microbial activity in hyporheic zone sediments from a dynamic groundwater-river...
Dealuminated zeolite HY was used to support Ir(CO)2 complexes formed from Ir(CO)2(C5H7O2). Infrared and X-ray absorption spectra and atomic-...
Extended cycling of the Li-O2 battery under full discharge/charge conditions is achievable upon selection of appropriate electrode materials and...
We report on room-temperature negative transconductance (NTC) in axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs). The NTC...
From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions,...
Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative...
Materials synthesis and the functioning of devices often indispensably involve liquid media. But direct visualization of dynamic process in liquids,...
Pertechnetate was slowly reduced in a natural, untreated arid sediment under anaerobic conditions (0.02 nmol g-1 h-1), which could occur in low...
Ferrocene (Fc) and N-(ferrocenylmethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-N-ethylammonium bistrifluoromethyl-sulfonimide (Fc1N112-TFSI) were dissolved in carbonate...
Utilizing bicrystallography in two dimensions (2D), the symmetries of migration related segments of Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) boundaries are...
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have gained a considerable attention in biological research due to their anti-oxidant like behaviour and...
High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr...
High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization was used to probe chemical constituents of young soot...
Suppressing lithium (Li) dendrite growth is one of the most critical challenges for the development of Li metal batteries. We recently proposed a...
The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic...
The dissolution of Tc(IV) sulfide and concurrent transformation of sulfidated ZVI during 2 oxidation were examined. Kinetic data obtained with 10 mL...
Li-rich and Mn-rich (LMR) layered structured materials are very promising cathodes for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. However, their fundamental...
The prevalent approach to developing new nanomaterials is a trial-and-error process of iteratively altering synthesis procedures and then...
ZnxZryOz mixed oxides were studied for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. Reaction conditions (temperature, residence time, ethanol molar...
This paper presents the results of a comprehensive model-based analysis of a uranium tracer test conducted at the U.S Department of Energy Hanford...
Corrosion and cracking represent critical failure mechanisms for structural materials in many applications. Although a crack can often be seen with...
Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from syngas is under investigation again due to the desire for less dependency from imports and the...
Basalt samples representing five different formations were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical carbon dioxide containing 1% hydrogen...
High-resolution characterizations of intergranular attack in alloy 600 (Ni-17Cr-9Fe) exposed to 325 °C simulated pressurized water reactor (...
Ability to predict the solubility and stability of lithium polysulfide is vital in realizing longer lasting lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein we...
Bimetallic PtPd on silica nano-particle catalysts have been synthesized and their average structure determined by Pt L3 and Pd K-edge extended X-ray...
Intergranular oxidation of a Ni-4Al alloy exposed to hydrogenated, high-temperature water was characterized using directly correlated transmission...
Homogenous catalysts utilize discrete molecular species which imparts high selectivity and facilitates mechanistic understanding, but encounter...
The p-n junction can be regarded as the most important electronic structure that is responsible for the ubiquity of semiconductor microelectronics...
A significant body of current research is aimed at developing methods for numerical simulation of flow and transport in porous media that explicitly...
We present silicon-compatible tri-gated p-Ge/i-Si/n-Si axial heteronanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), where on-state tunneling...
Ion irradiation effects on the magnetic properties of FeO/Fe3N (Iron oxide/Iron Nitride) nanoparticles are investigated in this study. The FeO/Fe3N...
Response to irradiation of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC is studied using 2 MeV Au+ ions near the critical temperature for amorphization and is compared to...
Double perovskite La2BMnO6 (B = Ni and Co) nanoparticles with average particle size of ~50 nm were synthesized using a facile, environmentally...
The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both...
Silicon has been widely explored as an anode material for lithium ion battery. Upon lithiation, silicon transforms to amorphous LixSi (a-LixSi) via...
Applications of rechargeable batteries are diverse and range from storing energy from renewable resources such as wind generators and solar arrays ,...
Charge retention by mass-selected ruthenium trisbipyridine dications, or Ru(bpy)32+, soft-landed onto self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces of 1H,...
Hollow Carbon Nanowires (HCNWs) were prepared through pyrolyzation of hollow polyaniline nanowires precursor. The HCNWs used as anode material for...
Irradiation induced amorphization in nanocrystalline and single crystal 3C-SiC has been studied using 1 MeV Si+ ions under the identical irradiation...
The atomic-level structure of water at mineral surfaces is an important controlling factor in interfacial reactions such as foreign ion incorporation...
Pulsed lasers extend the high spatial and mass resolution of atom probe tomography (APT) to non-conducting materials, such as oxides. For...
The mechanisms and kinetics of axial Ge-Si nanowire heteroepitaxial growth based on the tailoring of the Au catalyst composition via Ga alloying are...
SBA-15 silica supported rhenium catalysts were synthesized using solution-based atomic layer deposition method, and their activity and stability were...
Si nanowires (NWs) with axial p-n junctions were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid method. Transmission electron microscopy and electron holography...
Metal-dielectric composite materials, specifically metal nanoparticles supported on or embedded in metal oxides, are widely used in catalysis. The...
Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase...
The low temperature (403 – 453K) conversions of CO:hydrogen and CO2:hydrogen mixtures (6 bar total pressure) to methanol over copper...
An exchange bias study has been performed on core-shell iron-iron oxide (Fe-Fe3O4) nanoclusters (NCs) of size 11 nm and 14 nm carrying a different...
Fe-bearing clay minerals serve as an important source and sink for electrons in redox reactions in various subsurface geochemical environments, and...
Long-term (> 4 months) column experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl (U(VI)) desorption in sediments collected from the...
Mn1.68Co0.24Ni0.48Cu0.6O4 was produced by slip casting and sintering of spray-pyrolysis produced powders. Magnetic properties of this composition...
Pauling's first two rules are examined in terms of the accumulation of the electron density between bonded pairs of atoms for a relatively large...
The microstructure of a Ni-Mn-Ga alloy in the martensitic phase has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Inter-variant twin...
Flexible graphene paper (GP) pillared by carbon black (CB) nanoparticles using a simple vacuum filtration method is developed as a high-performance...
The advent of aberration correction for transmission electron microscopy has transformed atomic resolution imaging into a nearly routine technique...
Electronic structure calculations at the correlated molecular orbital theory and density functional theory levels have been used to generate a...
Growth rate-induced epitaxial orientations and crystalline quality of CeO2 thin films grown on Al2O3(0001) by oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam...
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of forsterite surfaces in contact with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) fluids of varying water content were...
Periodic density functional theory calculations were performed to explore the effects of doping potassium (K) on the reactivity of CO hydrogenation...
In this communication, we report on the specific role of the Alp sites in Pt sintering over γ-Al2O3 support. On the basis of HR-STEM and...
The application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable batteries is hindered by Li dendrite growth during Li deposition and low Li Coulombic...
Ion irradiation effects are studied on the Fe-based core-shell nanocluster (NC) films with core as Fe and shell as Fe3O4/FeO. These NC films were...
Reactions involving variably hydrated super critical CO2 (scCO2) and a Na saturated dioctahedral smectite (Na-STX-1) were examined by in situ high-...
We studied Pt−Co bimetallic nanoparticles during oxidation in O2 and reduction in H2 atmospheres using an aberration corrected environmental...
Lithium metal batteries are called the “holy grail” of energy storage systems. However, lithium dendrite growth in these...
Silicon is an attractive high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, but a comprehensive understanding of the massive ~300% volume change and...
The abiotic reductive dissolution of goethite and hematite by the reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) and riboflavin (RBFH2), electron...
Molecular simulation techniques are employed to gain insights into the structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties of the uranyl(VI) cation (...
Iron oxides are a ubiquitous class of compounds that are involved in many biological, geological, and technological processes, and the Fe(III)/Fe(II...
Millimeter wave (MMW) absorption measurements have been conducted on commercial samples of large (micrometer-sized) and small (nanometer-sized)...
Cr-doped core-shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized at varied atomic percentages of Cr from 0 at. % to 8 at. %. The low...
Etched silicon microfluidic pore network models (micromodels) with controlled chemical and redox gradients, mineralogy, and microbiology under...
Many species of bacteria can couple anaerobic growth to the respiratory reduction of insoluble minerals containing Fe(III) or Mn(III/IV). It has been...
Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts with various Cu loadings were prepared via solution ion exchange. The hydrated samples were studied with Electron Paramagnetic...
This article reports on a comprehensive experimental study of 16O+ and 90Zr+ ion co-implanted SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals. In this study, STO is...
Molecular adsorption of formate and carboxyl on the stoichiometric CeO2(111) and CeO2(110) surfaces was studied using periodic density functional...
The reactivity of gaseous, amine-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer ions with activated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces terminated...
The room temperature magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters (NCs) synthesized by a cluster deposition system have been...
Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility...
In this Environmental TEM (ETEM) study of supported Pt and Pd model catalysts, individual nanoparticles were tracked during heat treatments at...
Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an...
The commercial Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is successfully modified by AlF3 via a low temperature process. After being calcined at 400oC for 5 hours, AlF3 reacts...
We present a tomography technique which couples scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (XEDS) to...
Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of transmutant Mg in 3C-SiC due to high-energy neutron...
A large-sample-volume constant-flow magic angle sample spinning (CF-MAS) NMR probe is reported for in-situ studies of the reaction dynamics, stable...
The chemical bonding nature and its evolution upon electrochemical cycling in amorphous Si coated-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) anode has been...
Several different carbons have been systematically investigated in high voltage lithium ion batteries. It was founded that the higher surface area,...
Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with in-source fragmentation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were used...
The capture and storage of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in deep geologic formations represents one of the most promising options for...
To utilize high-capacity Si anodes in next-generation Li-ion batteries, the physical transformations during the Li-Si reaction must be better...
The tailoring of the physicochemical and catalytic properties of mono- and bimetallic Pt-Pd catalysts supported on amorphous silica-alumina is...
Additions of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) to soil have been shown to both increase and decrease mineralization of native soil organic carbon (nSOC...
The physical and chemical behaviors of materials used in energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), are mainly controlled by an...
The effects of different cell cans and separators on the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and long-term cycling stability of high voltage spinel...
Electron transporting multiheme cytochromes are essential to the metabolism of microbes that inhabit soils and carry out important biogeochemical...
Damage accumulation in argon-irradiated SrTiO3 single crystals has been studied by using combination of Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling (RBS/C...
Olivines, a significant constituent of basaltic rocks, have the potential to immobilize permanently CO2 after it is injected in the deep subsurface,...
Bio-mass conversion has attracted increasing research interests to produce bio-fuels with bio-ethanol being a major product. Development of advanced...
Pristine Li-rich layered cathodes, such as Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and Li1.2Ni0.1Mn0.525Co0.175O2, were identified to exist in two different structures:...
Tetragonally structured BaTiO3 single crystals were irradiated using 635 MeV 238U+ ions to fluences of 1E7, 5E10 and 1.4E12 ions/cm2 at room...
Phosphomolybdate functionalized graphene nanocomposite (PMo12-GS) has been successfully formed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the detection...
Mesoporous materials synthesized from commercial ferrierite (MMZ-FER) were applied to butanol dehydration. The MMZ-FER was produced by disassembling...
In order to form the stable surface film and to further enhance the long-term cycling stability of the graphite anodes of lithium-ion batteries, the...
One of the goals in the development of new battery technologies is to find new electrolytes with increased electrochemical stability. In-situ (...
In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results on correlating the Pt local coordination and electronic structure with the Pt/C catalyst activity...
Carbonation reactions are central to the prospect of CO2 trapping by mineralization in geologic reservoirs. In contrast to the relevant aqueous-...
New insights into the structure of the calcite-water interface are obtained through direct model-independent comparison of multiple classical...
In a combined experimental and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study, benzene steam reforming (BSR) over MgAl2O4 supported Rh and Ir...
Elucidating the kinetics and mechanisms of heteroepitaxial nucleation and growth at mineral-water interfaces is essential to understanding surface...
The nature of the reaction products that form on the surfaces of nanometer-sized forsterite particles during reaction with H2O saturated...
An eco-friendly and economical method for the formation of uniform-sized carbon spheres by hydrothermal dehydration/condensation of a commercial...
Oxidation of alloy often involves chemical partition and injection of vacancies. Chemical partition is the consequence of selective oxidation, while...
Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si...
Biological processes can occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales; from femtoseconds to hours and from angstroms to meters. Although no...
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/carbon composite was prepared by in situ chemical polymerization of EDOT monomer in carbon matrix. PEDOT has...
A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber...
The benefit of direct coupling of APT with TEM dark field imaging to investigate early stages of phase transformation in multicomponent alloys is...
Monodisperse gold clusters have been prepared on surfaces in different charge states through soft landing of mass-selected ions. Ligand-stabilized...
Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on γ-Al2O3 in order to identify the...
A model of dislocations has been developed for the use in Monte Carlo simulations of ion channeling spectra obtained for defected crystals. High...
Technetium contamination remains a major environmental problem at nuclear reprocessing sites, such as at the Hanford nuclear reservation, Washington...
For oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over alloy electrocatalysts, the understanding of how the atomic arrangement of the metal species in the...
Rational design of silicon and carbon nanocomposite with a special topological feature has been demonstrated to be a feasible way for mitigating the...
The water concentration dependence of forsterite carbonation in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 80°C and 76 bars was investigated by a...
Epitaxial thin films of CrxV1-x over the entire composition range were deposited on MgO(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The films exhibited the...
Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five...
We investigate strontium titanate as a model waste form for 90Sr. Implantation with O+ and Zr+ ions, followed by annealing at 1423 K, was performed...
One of the experimental challenges in the study of nanomaterials in liquids in the (scanning) transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) is gaining...
A variety of approaches are being made to enhance the performance of lithium ion batteries. Incorporating multi-valence transition metal ions into...
The ability to detect and intervene in DNA assembly, disassembly, and enzyme cutting processes in a solution phase requires effective signal...
Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is an important candidate electrode for energy system technologies such as photoelectrochemical water splitting....
Redox-active transition metal (TM) oxides, hydroxide and oxyhydroxides semiconductors typically posses wide p-d charge-transfer band gaps and exhibit...
Lithium (Li) dendrite formation is one of the critical challenges for rechargeable Li metal batteries. The traditional method to suppress Li...
Although nanocrystal morphology is controllable using conventional colloidal synthesis, multiple characterization techniques are typically needed to...
The structural changes in supported NiPt/C and NiPt/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were investigated using in-situ extended X-ray absorption fine...
Nanostructured Li3V2(PO4)3 /carbon composite (Li3V2(PO4)3/C) is successfully prepared by incorporating precursor solution into expanded pore...
Li-rich layered material Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 possesses high voltage and high specific capacity, which makes it an attractive candidate for the...
Two organic cathode materials based on poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) structure with different substitution positions were synthesized and their...
Micro and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks were synthesized using a single tetrahedral building block and their catalytic properties towards...
Interfacial reactivity of redox-active iron-bearing mineral surfaces plays a crucial role in many environmental processes including biogeochemical...
Titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4) nanoparticles were synthesized by room temperature aqueous precipitation, in which Ti(IV) replaces Fe(III) and is charge...
Deposition of Li is a major safety concern existing in Li-ion secondary batteries. Here we perform the first in situ high spatial resolution...
The understanding of the atomic-scale structural and chemical ordering in supported nanosized alloy particles is fundamental for achieving active...
Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of...
Phenomena related to the interaction of point defects and dopants with grain boundaries and interfaces have been very well documented. However, a...
Reactions involving scCO2 and a calcium saturated dioctahedral smectite (Ca-STX-1) were examined by in situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction over a...
A power law regression equation, <R(M-O)> = 1.46(<&rho;(rc)>/r)-0.19, connecting the average experimental bond lengths, <R(M-O)...
This paper focuses on laser-based de-vitrification of amorphous soft magnetic Fe-Si-B ribbons and its consequent influence on the magnetic properties...
Analysis of nanoparticles is often challenging especially when they are embedded in a matrix. Hence, we have used laser-assisted atom probe...
Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the...
The free energy profile for electron flow through the bacterial deca-heme cytochrome MtrF has been computed using thermodynamic integration and...
The ionic charge state of monodisperse cationic gold clusters on surfaces may be controlled by selecting the coverage of mass-selected ions soft...
Superparamagnetic granular magnetite (Fe3O4) films with an average grain size of 3 nm have been found to be magnetized following 5.5 MeV Si2+ ion...
Reduction of hexavalent uranium (UVI) to less soluble tetravalent uranium (UIV) through enzymatic or abiotic redox reactions has the potential to...
The effect of subgrid heterogeneity in sediment properties on the rate of uranyl[U(VI)] desorption was investigated using a sediment collected from...
Flavins are secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella and can function as endogenous electron transfer mediators (ETM). In...
P-doped amorphous Si (a-Si) was prepared by a solid state and solution metathesis reaction of a P-doped Zintl phase precursor, NaSi0.99P0.01, with an...
Nano-structured vanadium oxide (V2O5) is fabricated via facile thermal-decomposition of a vanadium precursor and vanadyl oxalate produced by reacting...
Systems comprising of multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the warm syngas cleanup of coal- and biomass-derived syngas....
A cluster deposition method was used to produce films of loosely aggregated nanoclusters (NC) of Fe core-Fe3O4 shell or fully oxidized Fe3O4. Films...
The thermodynamics of mixing and its dependence on cation distribution in the Fe3O4&ndash; 14 Fe2TiO4 (magnetite-ulv&ouml;spinel) spinel...
ABSTRACT: Direct observations of solution-phase nanoparticle growth using in situ liquid transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have demonstrated the...
Understanding of the atomic-scale structure is essential for exploiting the unique catalytic properties of any nanoalloy catalyst. This report...
It is well known that the stability of nonaqueous electrolyte is critical for the rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. Although stability of many solvents...
Under anoxic conditions, soluble 99TcO4&ndash; can be reduced to less soluble TcO2&bull;nH2O, but the oxide is highly susceptible to...
In this work, we investigated the phase transformation of &gamma; Al2O3 to &theta; Al2O3 by ethanol TPD and XRD. Ethanol TPD showed...
The mineral respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes brought together inside a...
In this study we examine the nature of highly fragile reaction products that form in low water content super critical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using a...
The insulating nature of sulfur and the solubility of the polysulfide in organic electrolyte are two main factors that limit the application of...
A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for...
Abstract It is found that the spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, corresponding to the surface exchanged molybdenum species in Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts is...

Quick Specs

    • Electron beam energy: 80 to 300 keV
    • Sample operating pressure: 10-7 to 20 mbar
    • Sample operating temperature: Up to 1000°C
    • Gases allowed: N2, Ar, O2, H2O, CO, and CO2
    • Gas composition controlled with flow controller and monitored using mass spectrometer
    • S/TEM-HAADF point-to-point resolution at 300 kV: < 0.14 nm
    • HRTEM phase contrast resolution (information limit at 300 kV): < 0.1 nm
    • High-tilt crystallographic and tomographic analysis
    • Si(Li) X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (XEDS)
    • Cryogenic imaging capability
    • Sample tilt range: -70°–+70°
    • CCD camera: 2k x 2k
    • Exit wave function reconstruction from defocus series

Science Highlights

Posted: Wednesday, July 1, 2020 - 08:38
The Science  Black carbon, or soot, enters the air mainly as a byproduct of fuel combustion and absorbs sunlight, leading to a strong warming effect ...
Posted: Friday, June 26, 2020 - 08:57
The Science A team of scientists examined organic matter stabilization processes in alkaline soils and found that most of the organic matter was...
Posted: Tuesday, December 4, 2018 - 16:12
From Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Physical Sciences Division Rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries are the most widely used energy storage...
Posted: Friday, May 25, 2018 - 08:34
The Science Engineers have long known water vapor can accelerate corrosion of metals and alloys, but the exact mechanisms remain elusive and...
Posted: Friday, April 20, 2018 - 10:55
The Science Advanced microscopes using a beam of electrons rather than light give scientists powerful tools to investigate biological and mineral...
Posted: Wednesday, April 11, 2018 - 09:30
From Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Physical Sciences Division Surface mining for rare earth elements used in smartphones and wind turbines...
Posted: Wednesday, May 10, 2017 - 14:47
The Science Crystalline nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium often combine to form large crystals. However, the fundamentals governing this...
Posted: Friday, April 28, 2017 - 10:12
Mary Beckman, PNNL, (509) 375-3688Tom Rickey, PNNL, (509) 375-3732 RICHLAND, Wash. – Like two magnets being pulled toward each other, tiny crystals...
Posted: Wednesday, April 26, 2017 - 15:49
Frances White, PNNL, (509) 375-6904 RICHLAND, Wash. – With about three times the energy capacity by weight of today's lithium-ion batteries, lithium-...
Posted: Tuesday, April 11, 2017 - 09:06
The Science For the lithium-oxygen battery system, it is well recognized the charging and discharging reaction produces peculiar reaction product...
Posted: Friday, January 27, 2017 - 10:26
Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory used EMSL capabilities to develop a "one-pot" method to produce complex, well-structured...
Posted: Friday, September 23, 2016 - 12:19
The Science Wetland environments are effective at mitigating migration of many groundwater contaminants because of their unique combination of...
Posted: Monday, June 13, 2016 - 09:31
The Science A recent study revealed a new class of material called carbon-based rods. These rods exhibit unique water adsorption at low relative...
Posted: Thursday, May 26, 2016 - 10:10
The Science Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth’s climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles, but...
Posted: Wednesday, April 6, 2016 - 11:37
The Science Scientists can now trap sea spray aerosols in their natural state and accurately characterize their particle structure using a new...
Posted: Tuesday, December 29, 2015 - 10:24
The Science A wide variety of microbes thrive at high temperatures such as those found in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park. Archaeal...
Posted: Friday, November 21, 2014 - 13:58
The Science Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep subsurface environments has received significant attention and investment as a way to reduce...
Posted: Sunday, August 3, 2014 - 14:59
The Science Nanocatalysts consisting of two metals can offer superior performance compared with those made up of only one metal, so they are widely...
Posted: Monday, February 4, 2013 - 16:00
Scientists with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and FEI Company used EMSL’s transmission electron microscopes to create ultrahigh-resolution...

Projects

Electrical, optical and mechanical properties of inorganic nanostructures have strong relationships with their morphologies. For example, one-...
Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate materials with a wide range of applications including catalysis, water purification, agriculture, and...
The aim of this proposal is to build upon our initial success in the exploration of the 3-D location and distribution of the Al and Si atoms in...
Environmental degradation is a major problem in high-temperature water environments such as those found in nuclear reactors and other forms of steam...
With their extensive coverage, low clouds greatly impact global climate. Presently, low clouds are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs...