Fundamental research in beyond Lithium ion battery has been limited and an in-situ NMR method to probe transient electrochemical reactions has yet to be developed. We propose to develop unique in situ NMR capabilities to study the detailed redox chemistry and the performance degradation mechanisms in the electrolytes, membrane and electrodes of beyond Li-ion batteries with particular emphasize on Mg, Ca and Zn-batteries. Advanced NMR spectroscopy with a wide range of magnetic field from 7.05 to ultra-high field of 19.97 Tesla. The proposed investigation will yield detailed molecular information regarding ion transport mechanisms and the chemical status of the ions both inside the electrodes and at the electrode-electrolytes interface. This is especially important for the development of beyond Li-ion batteries with improved energy and power densities as well as improved long-term stability for electrochemical energy storage systems. To accomplish these research objectives, EMSL's unique resources in NMR, EPR and computational modeling are critically needed.