We developed an efficient solvent- and catalyst-free direct polytrifluoromethylation of solid perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride that produced a new family of (poly)perfluoroalkyl bay and ortho substituted PDIs with two different imide substituents. Direct hydrogen substitution with CN group led to the synthesis of a cyanated perfluoroalkyl PDI derivative for the first time. Absorption, steady-state and time-resolved emission, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical, and gas-phase electron affinity data allowed for systematic studies of substitution effects at bay, ortho, and imide positions in the new PDIs. Solid-state packing showed remarkable variations in the intermolecular interactions that are important for charge transport and photophysical properties. Analysis of the electrochemical data for 143 electron poor PDIs, including newly reported compounds, revealed some general trends and peculiar effects of electron withdrawing group substitution at all three positions.
Core Perylene Diimide Designs via Direct Bay and Ortho (Poly)trifluoromethylation: Synthesis, Isolation, X-ray Structures,
Clikeman TT, EV Bukovsky, XB Wang, YS Chen, G Rumbles, SH Strauss, and OV Boltalina.2015."Core Perylene Diimide Designs via Direct Bay and Ortho (Poly)trifluoromethylation: Synthesis, Isolation, X-ray Structures, Optical and Electronic Properties."European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2015(30):6641-6654. doi:10.1002/ejoc.201501024