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Chongmin Wang
PNNL Lab Fellow

Dr. Wang is a materials scientist with the Environmental Transformations and Interactions science area at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. Wang leads a team researching materials for energy science and applications. He is an internationally recognized expert and leader in aberration-corrected high-resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. His research focuses on these tools’ ability to probe materials’ microstructure and chemistry at the atomic scale, especially in the area of energy conversion, storage, and sustainability.

Among his outstanding contributions and achievements in electron microscopy and materials research, the most recent one, also highly cited as seminal, is his innovative work on the development of in situ TEM for electrochemical studies. This work led to a 2016 Materials Research Society (MRS) Innovation in Materials Characterization Award (shared with Frances Ross from IBM and Niels de Jonge from Leibniz Institute for New Materials of Germany) and a 2012 Microscopy Today Innovation Award. This work opened a new field of research clustered on atomic-level direct observation of electrochemical processes under dynamic operating conditions. His continued research of in situ aberration-corrected S/TEM, leading to three generations of in situ TEM probes for the research community, broadly dubbed as open and closed cell, was recognized in the 2015 Journal of Materials Research Paper of the Year Award.

Wang's interest in electron microscopy, especially in situ microscopy and techniques, extends to the characterization of energy materials and nanoscale science. He has published more than 400 peer-reviewed journal articles and is internationally recognized for energy storage and electron microscopy.

Research Interests

  • Advanced electron imaging and spectroscopy
  • Energy science and technology
  • Nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • Environmental science and technology 


  • PhD in Materials Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, 1994
  • MS in Condensed Matter Physics, Lanzhou University, 1986
  • BS in Physics, Lanzhou University, 1983

Awards and Recognition

  • Laboratory Director’s Award for Individual Lifetime Achievement in Science and Technology, PNNL (2020)
  • Highly Cited Researcher in Materials Science, Clarivate Analytics, (2018, 2019, 2020)
  • Pathway to Excellence Award, PNNL (2013, 2017, 2018)
  • Laboratory Director’s Award for Exceptional Scientific Achievement, PNNL (2017)
  • MRS Fellow (2017)
  • Materials Characterization Award, Materials Research Innovation (2016)
  • Paper of Year Award, Journal of Materials Research
  • Outstanding Performance Award, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, PNNL (2017)
  • Outstanding Performance Award, Energy and Environment Directorate, PNNL (2017)
  • R&D 100 Award, for Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery Application (2012)
  • Innovation Award (team leader), Microscopy Today (2012)
  • Director’s Award, EMSL, PNNL (2010, 2012)
  • Exceptional Contribution Award, EMSL (2004, 2007)
  • Exceptional Contribution Award, PNNL (2003)
  • Japanese Outstanding Invention Award, Ministry of Science and Education of Japan (2001)
  • Ceramgraph Competition Award, American Ceramic Society (1998, 1999, 2000)
  • Rowland B. Snow Award, American Ceramic Society (1999)
  • Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship Award (1994)

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Principal Editor, Journal of Materials Research
  • Selected Co-Chair, 2020 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, MA
  • Symposium Organizer, on in situ TEM and Energy Storage, 2015 MRS Spring and Fall Meetings (fall 2010, spring 2012, spring 2014, fall 2015)
  • Session Chair, MRS Spring and Fall Meetings (spring 2010, spring 2012, fall 2012, fall 2013, spring 2014, fall 2015, spring 2016)
  • Leading Editor, MRS Proceedings (hardcopy and electronic versions) (2010, 2012, 2014)
  • Chair, Organizer, and Program Committee Member, 2015 Pre-Microscopy & Microanalysis Meeting (M&M) on Electron Microscopy for Biological, Environmental, and Energy Research, July 29–31, PNNL
  • Chair, Organizer, and Program Committee Member, 2014 Joint Meeting between American Vacuum Society (AVS) Pacific Northwest chapter and Pooled Resources for Electron Microscopy Informatics Education and Research (PREMIER), September 16–19, PNNL
  • Symposium Organizer, M&M Annual Meeting on in situ Microscopy: (2010, 2011, 2015)
  • Symposium Organizer, Annual Meeting on in situ Microscopy and Spectroscopy, AVS (2008 and 2009)
  • Session Chair, M&M Meetings
  • Session Chair, AVS Meetings
  • Proposal Reviewer, Science Foundation of European Union, South Korea, Switzerland, Canada, U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Universities, Trustee Foundation, and a wide range of scientific journals


  • “Battery cell and in-situ battery electrode analysis method.” 2013. U.S. Patent No. 10,505,234.
  • “High capacity and stable cathode materials.” 2019. U.S. Patent No. 10,243,206.
  • “Si/C composite anode with molecular level mixing for lithium-ion battery.” 2016. South Korea Patent.
  • “Materials for hydrogen storage and methods for preparing and using same.” 2005. U.S. Patent, E-14310.
  • “Fabrication of graphite layer enclosed SiC composite.” 1997. Japanese Patent 10-101315.   



Cao X., L. Zou, B.E. Matthews, L. Zhang, X. He, X. Ren, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2021. "Optimization of fluorinated orthoformate based electrolytes for practical high-voltage lithium metal batteries." Energy Storage Materials 34. PNNL-SA-153014. doi:10.1016/j.ensm.2020.08.035

Hu J., L. Li, E. Hu, S. Chae, H. Jia, T. Liu, and B. Wu, et al. 2021. "Mesoscale-architecture-based crack evolution dictating cycling stability of advanced lithium ion batteries." Nano Energy 79. PNNL-SA-153829. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105420


Chen J., X. Fan, Q. Li, H. Yang, M.R. Khoshi, Y. Xu, and S. Hwang, et al. 2020. "Electrolyte Design for LiF-rich Solid-Electrolyte Interfaces to Enable High-performance Microsized Alloy Anodes for Batteries." Nature Energy 5, no. 5:386-397. PNNL-SA-151702. doi:10.1038/s41560-020-0601-1

Chen, X., W. Li, Y. Xu, Z. Zeng, H. Tian, M. Velayutham, W. Shi, W. Li, C. Wang, D. Reed, V. V. Khramtsov, X. Li, and X. Liu. 2020. “Charging activation and desulfurization of MnS unlock the active sites and electrochemical reactivity for Zn-ion batteries.” Nano Energy 75.

Darbar D., E.C. Self, L. Li, C. Wang, H.M. Meyer, C. Lee, and J.R. Croy, et al. 2020. "New Synthesis Strategies to Improve Co-Free LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 Cathodes: Early Transition Metal d0 Dopants and Manganese Pyrophosphate Coating." Journal of Power Sources 479. PNNL-SA-153008. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228591

He Y., B. Li, C. Wang, and S.X. Mao. 2020. "Direct Observation of Dual-Step Twinning Nucleation in Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals." Nature Communications 11, no. 1:2483. PNNL-SA-152795. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16351-0

He Y., L. Luo, M.L. Sushko, C. Liu, D.R. Baer, D.K. Schreiber, and K.M. Rosso, et al. 2020. "Vacancy Ordering during Selective Oxidation of ß-NiAl." Materialia 12. PNNL-SA-152347. doi:10.1016/j.mtla.2020.100783

Jia H., X. Li, J. Song, X. Zhang, L. Luo, Y. He, and B. Li, et al. 2020. "Hierarchical Porous Silicon Structures with Extraordinary Mechanical Strength as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes." Nature Communications 11, no. 1:Article No. 1474. PNNL-SA-140627. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15217-9

Le, P. M. L., T. D. Vo, H. Pan, Y. Jin, Y. He, X. Cao, H. V. Nguyen, M. H. Engelhard, C. Wang, J. Xiao, and J. G. Zhang. 2020. “Excellent Cycling Stability of Sodium Anode Enabled by a Stable Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formed in Ether-Based Electrolytes.” Advanced Functional Materials 30 (25).

Li L., E.C. Self, D. Darbar, L. Zou, I. Bhattacharya, D. Wang, and J. Nanda, et al. 2020. "Hidden Subsurface Reconstruction and its Atomic Origins in Layered Oxide Cathodes." Nano Letters 20, no. 4:2756-2762. PNNL-SA-150764. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c00380

Luo L., L. Li, D.K. Schreiber, Y. He, D.R. Baer, S.M. Bruemmer, and C. Wang. 2020. "Deciphering atomistic mechanisms of the gas-solid interfacial reaction during alloy oxidation." Science Advances 6, no. 7:Article No. eaay8491. PNNL-SA-147915. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aay8491

Luo L., S. Chen, Q. Xu, Y. He, Z. Dong, L. Zhang, and J. Zhu, et al. 2020. "Dynamic Atom Clusters on AuCu Nanoparticle Surface During CO Oxidation." Journal of the American Chemical Society 142, no. 8:4022-4027. PNNL-SA-150963. doi:10.1021/jacs.9b13901

Luo L., Y. Nian, S. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. He, Y. Han, and C. Wang. 2020. "Real-time Atomic-scale Visualization of Reversible Copper Surface Activation during the CO Oxidation Reaction." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 59, no. 6:2505-2509. PNNL-SA-149739. doi:10.1002/ange.201915024

Mo, R., X. Tan, F. Li, R. Tao, J. Xu, D. Kong, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Wang, C. Wang, J. Li, Y. Peng, and Y. Lu. 2020. “Tin-Graphene Tubes as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Volumetric and Gravimetric Energy Densities.” Nature Communications 11 (1).

Nian Y., Z. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Han, C. Wang, and L. Luo. 2020. "Atomic-Scale Dynamic Interaction of H2O Molecules with Cu Surface." Physical Review Letters 125, no. 15:156101. PNNL-SA-153693. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.156101

Qian C., J. Zhao, Y. Sun, H. Lee, L. Luo, M. Makaremi, and S. Mukherjee, et al. 2020. "Electrolyte-phobic Surface for the Next-Generation Nanostructured Battery Electrodes." Nano Letters 20, no. 10:7455-7462. PNNL-SA-135598. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02880

Sheng, A., J. Liu, X. Li, O. Qafoku, R. N. Collins, A. M. Jones, C. I. Pearce, C. Wang, J. Ni, A. Lu, and K. M. Rosso. 2020. “Labile Fe(III) from Sorbed Fe(II) Oxidation Is the Key Intermediate in Fe(II)-Catalyzed Ferrihydrite Transformation.” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 272: 105-120.

Song, J., J. Song, K. Wang, J. Zheng, M. H. Engelhard, B. Xiao, E. Hu, Z. Zhu, C. Wang, M. Sui, Y. Lin, D. Reed, V. L. Sprenkle, P. Yan, and X. Li. 2020. “Controlling Surface Phase Transition and Chemical Reactivity of O3-Layered Metal Oxide Cathodes for High-Performance Na-Ion Batteries.” ACS Energy Letters 5 (6): 1718-1725.

Unocic, R. R., K. L. Jungjohann, B. L. Mehdi, N. D. Browning, and C. Wang. 2020. “In Situ Electrochemical Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces.” MRS Bulletin 45 (9): 738-745.

Wang X., J. Wang, Y. He, C. Wang, L. Zhong, and S.X. Mao. 2020. "Unstable twin in body-centered cubic tungsten nanocrystals." Nature Communications 11. PNNL-SA-152500. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16349-8

Wang, H., X. Feng, Y. Chen, Y. S. Liu, K. S. Han, M. Zhou, M. H. Engelhard, V. Murugesan, R. S. Assary, T. L. Liu, W. Henderson, Z. Nie, M. Gu, J. Xiao, C. Wang, K. Persson, D. Mei, J. G. Zhang, K. T. Mueller, J. Guo, K. Zavadil, Y. Shao, and J. Liu. 2020. “Reversible Electrochemical Interface of Mg Metal and Conventional Electrolyte Enabled by Intermediate Adsorption.” ACS Energy Letters 5 (1): 200-206.

Xu Y., H. Wu, H. Jia, J. Zhang, X. Wu, and C. Wang. 2020. "Current density regulated atomic to nanoscale process on Li deposition and solid electrolyte interphase revealed by Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy." ACS Nano 14, no. 7:8766-8775. PNNL-SA-152803. doi:10.1021/acsnano.0c03344

Xu Y., H. Wu, H. Jia, M.H. Engelhard, J. Zhang, W. Xu, and C. Wang. 2020. "Sweeping potential regulated structural and chemical evolution of solid-electrolyte interphase on Cu and Li as revealed by cryo-TEM." Nano Energy 76. PNNL-SA-153402. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105040

Yue Y., N. Li, L. Li, E. Foley, Y. Fu, V.S. Battaglia, and R. Clement, et al. 2020. "Redox Behaviors in Li-Excess Cation-Disordered Mn-Nb-O-F Rocksalt Cathode." Chemistry of Materials 32, no. 11:4490-4498. PNNL-SA-152425. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b05221

Zhang H., C. Wang, and G. Zhou. 2020. "Ultra-Microtome for the Preparation of TEM Samples from Battery Cathodes." Microscopy and Microanalysis 26, no. 5:867-877. PNNL-SA-153035. doi:10.1017/S1431927620024368

Zhang X., L. Zou, Y. Xu, X. Cao, M.H. Engelhard, B.E. Matthews, and L. Zhong, et al. 2020. "Advanced electrolytes for fast-charging high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in wide-temperature range." Advanced Energy Materials 10, no. 22:2000368. PNNL-SA-150274. doi:10.1002/aenm.202000368

Zhou Y., M. Su, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Ren, and R. Cao, et al. 2020. "Real-time mass spectrometric characterization of the solid-electrolyte interphase of a lithium-ion battery." Nature Nanotechnology 15, no. 3:224-230. PNNL-SA-144845. doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0618-4


Cao X., X. Ren, L. Zou, M.H. Engelhard, W. Huang, H. Wang, and B.E. Matthews, et al. 2019. "Monolithic solid-electrolyte interphases formed in fluorinated orthoformate-based electrolytes minimize Li depletion and pulverization." Nature Energy 4, no. 9:796-805. PNNL-SA-141828. doi:10.1038/s41560-019-0464-5

Cao X., Y. Xu, L. Zhang, M.H. Engelhard, L. Zhong, X. Ren, and H. Jia, et al. 2019. "Nonflammable Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Enabled by Ultraconformal Passivation Interphases." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 10:2529-2534. PNNL-SA-145269. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.9b01926

Jaegers N.R., J. Lai, Y. He, E.D. Walter, D.A. Dixon, M. Vasiliu, and Y. Chen, et al. 2019. "Mechanism by which Tungsten Oxide Promotes the Activity of Supported V2O5/TiO2 Catalysts for NOX Abatement: Structural Effects Revealed by 51V MAS NMR Spectroscopy." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 58, no. 36:12609-12616. PNNL-SA-141251. doi:10.1002/anie.201904503

Jin Y., L. Zou, L. Liu, M.H. Engelhard, R.L. Patel, Z. Nie, and K. Han, et al. 2019. "Joint charge storage for high-rate aqueous zinc-manganese dioxide batteries." Advanced Materials 31, no. 29:Article No. 1900567. PNNL-SA-140329. doi:10.1002/adma.201900567

Li L., J. Yu, D. Darbar, E.C. Self, D. Wang, J. Nanda, and I. Bhattacharya, et al. 2019. "Atomic-scale Mechanisms of Enhanced Electrochemical Properties of Mo-doped Co-free Layered Oxide Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 10:2540-2546. PNNL-SA-146763. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.9b01830

Li Y., I.A. Murphy, Y. Chen, F. Li, X. Wang, S. Wang, and D. Hubble, et al. 2019. "A multi-functional interface derived from thiol-modified mesoporous carbon in lithium-sulfur batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 7, no. 21:13372-13381. PNNL-SA-144283. doi:10.1039/c9ta02743b

Liu B., Q. Li, M.H. Engelhard, Y. He, X. Zhang, D. Mei, and C. Wang, et al. 2019. "Constructing Robust Electrode/Electrolyte Interphases to Enable Wide Temperature Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11, no. 24:21496-21505. PNNL-SA-141223. doi:10.1021/acsami.9b03821

Mo R., F. Li, X. Tan, P. Xu, R. Tao, G. Shen, and X. Lu, et al. 2019. "High-quality Mesoporous Graphene Particles as High-energy and Fast-charging Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries." Nature Communications 10, no. 1:1474. PNNL-SA-143544. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09274-y

Ren X., L. Zou, S. Jiao, D. Mei, M.H. Engelhard, Q. Li, and H. Lee, et al. 2019. "High-Concentration Ether Electrolytes for Stable High-Voltage Lithium Metal Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 4:896-902. PNNL-SA-134330. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.9b00381

Ren X., L. Zou, X. Cao, M.H. Engelhard, W. Liu, S.D. Burton, and H. Lee, et al. 2019. "Enabling High-Voltage Lithium-Metal Batteries under Practical Conditions." Joule 3, no. 7:1662-1676. PNNL-SA-140396. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2019.05.006

Song G., J. Cheong, C. Kim, L. Luo, C. Hwang, S. Choi, and J. Ryu, et al. 2019. "Atomic-scale combination of germanium-zinc nanofibers for structural and electrochemical evolution." Nature Communications 10, no. 1:Article No. 2364. PNNL-SA-135597. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10305-x

Sun C., K. Zhao, Y. He, J. Zheng, W. Xu, C. Zhang, and X. Wang, et al. 2019. "Interconnected Vertically Stacked 2D-MoS2 for Ultrastable Cycling of Rechargeable Li-Ion Battery." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11, no. 23:20762-20769. PNNL-SA-138453. doi:10.1021/acsami.9b02359

Wu H., Y. Xu, X. Ren, B. Liu, M.H. Engelhard, M.S. Ding, and P.Z. El-Khoury, et al. 2019. "Polymer-in-"quasi-ionic liquid" electrolytes for high-voltage lithium metal batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 9, no. 41:1902108. PNNL-SA-144443. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902108

Yan P., J. Zheng, Z. Tang, A. Devaraj, G. Chen, K. Amine, and J. Zhang, et al. 2019. "Injection of oxygen vacancies in the bulk lattice of layered cathodes." Nature Nanotechnology 14, no. 6:602-609. PNNL-SA-141286. doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0428-8

Zhang X., X. Zhang, and C. Wang. 2019. "Building Advanced Materials via Particle Aggregation and Molecular Self-Assembly." Journal of Materials Research 34, no. 17:2911-2913. PNNL-SA-156264. doi:10.1557/jmr.2019.272

Zheng J., Y. Ye, T. Liu, Y. Xiao, C. Wang, F. Wang, and F. Pan. 2019. "Ni/Li Disordering in Layered Transition Metal Oxide: Electrochemical Impact, Origin, and Control." Accounts of Chemical Research 52, no. 8:2201-2209. PNNL-SA-140607. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00033


Adkins E.R., T. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Wang, and B.A. Korgel. 2018. "In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Oxide Shell-Induced Pore Formation in (De)lithiated Silicon Nanowires." ACS Energy Letters 3, no. 11:2829-2834. PNNL-SA-129164. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b01904

Han S., J. Wang, X. Shi, M. Guo, H. Wang, C. Wang, and M. Gu. 2018. "Morphology-controlled Discharge Profile and Reversible Cu Extrusion and Dissolution In Biomimetic CuS." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, no. 48:41458-41464. PNNL-SA-138373. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b17387

Kwak W., L. Luo, H. Jung, C. Wang, and Y. Sun. 2018. "Revealing the Reaction Mechanism of Na-O2 Batteries Using Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy." ACS Energy Letters 3, no. 2:393-399. PNNL-SA-131396. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b01273

Liu B., W. Xu, J. Tao, P. Yan, J. Zheng, M.H. Engelhard, and D. Lu, et al. 2018. "Enhanced Cyclability of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with Electrodes Protected by Surface Films Induced via In-Situ Electrochemical Process." Advanced Energy Materials 8, no. 11:1702340. PNNL-SA-128613. doi:10.1002/aenm.201702340

Liu J., D. Lu, J. Zheng, P. Yan, B. Wang, X. Sun, and Y. Shao, et al. 2018. "Minimizing Polysulfide Shuttle Effect in Lithium-Ion Sulfur Batteries by Anode Surface Passivation." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, no. 26:21965-21972. PNNL-SA-129224. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b02381

Luo L., M. Su, P. Yan, L. Zou, D.K. Schreiber, D.R. Baer, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2018. "Atomic Origins of Water-Vapour-Promoted Alloy Oxidation." Nature Materials 17, no. 6:514-518. PNNL-SA-124752. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0078-5

Nanda J., C. Wang, and P. Liu. 2018. "Frontiers of solid-state batteries." MRS Bulletin 43, no. 10:740-745. PNNL-SA-138451. doi:10.1557/mrs.2018.234

Ren W., D. Liu, C. Sun, X. Yao, J. Tan, C. Wang, and K. Zhao, et al. 2018. "Nonhierarchical Heterostructured Fe2O3/Mn2O3 Porous Hollow Spheres for Enhanced Lithium Storage." Small 14, no. 26:1800659. PNNL-SA-135599. doi:10.1002/smll.201800659

Ryu J., T. Chen, T. Bok, G. Song, J. Ma, C. Hwang, and L. Luo, et al. 2018. "Mechanical Mismatch-driven Rippling In Carbon-coated Silicon Sheets For Stress-resilient Battery Anodes." Nature Communications 9, no. 1:Article No. 2924. PNNL-SA-132988. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05398-9

Vinado C., S. Wang, Y. He, X. Xiao, Y. Li, C. Wang, and J. Yang. 2018. "Electrochemical and Interfacial Behavior of All Solid State Batteries Using Li10SnP2S12 Solid Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 396. PNNL-SA-132845. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.06.038

Xia Y., J. Zheng, C. Wang, and M. Gu. 2018. "Designing Principle For Ni-rich Cathode Materials With High Energy Density For Practical Applications." Nano Energy 49. PNNL-SA-134249. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.04.062

Yan P., J. Zheng, T. Chen, L. Luo, Y. Jiang, K. Wang, and M. Sui, et al. 2018. "Coupling of Electrochemically Triggered Thermal and Mechanical Effects to Aggravate Failure in a Layered Cathode." Nature Communications 9, no. 1:Artice No. 2437. PNNL-SA-134810. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04862-w

Yang Z., P. Ong, Y. He, L. Wang, M.E. Bowden, W. Xu, and T.C. Droubay, et al. 2018. "Direct Visualization of Li Dendrite Effect on LiCoO2 Cathode by In Situ TEM." Small 14, no. 52:1803108. PNNL-SA-135382. doi:10.1002/smll.201803108

Zhang H., B. May, J. Serrano, M. Casas, J. Cabana, C. Wang, and G. Zhou. 2018. "Facet-dependent Rock-salt Reconstruction on the Surface of Layered Oxide Cathodes." Chemistry of Materials 30, no. 3:692-699. PNNL-SA-131179. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b03901

Zhang K.H., G. Li, S.R. Spurgeon, L. Wang, P. Yan, Z. Wang, and M. Gu, et al. 2018. "Creation And Ordering Of Oxygen Vacancies At WO3-d And Perovskite Interfaces." Advanced Materials Interfaces 10, no. 20:17480-17486. PNNL-SA-110314. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b03278

Zhang K.L., G. Li, S.R. Spurgeon, L. Wang, P. Yan, Z. Wang, and M. Gu, et al. 2018. "Creation and Ordering of Oxygen Vacancies at WO3-d and Perovskite Interfaces." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, no. 20:17480-17486. PNNL-SA-132665. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b03278

Zhang Q., H. Chen, L. Luo, B. Zhao, H. Luo, X. Han, and J. Wang, et al. 2018. "Harnessing the Concurrent Reaction Dynamics in Active Si and Ge to Achieve High Performance Lithium-ion Batteries." Energy & Environmental Science 11, no. 3:669-681. PNNL-SA-135614. doi:10.1039/c8ee00239h

Zhang Y., M. Su, X. Yu, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, R. Cao, and W. Xu, et al. 2018. "Investigation of Ion-Solvent Interactions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes Using in Situ Liquid SIMS." Analytical Chemistry 90, no. 5:3341-3348. PNNL-SA-131962. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04921

Zhao W., J. Zheng, L. Zou, H. Jia, B. Liu, M.H. Engelhard, and C. Wang, et al. 2018. "High Voltage Operation of Ni-Rich NMC Cathodes Enabled by Stable Electrode/Electrolyte Interphases." Advanced Energy Materials 8, no. 19:1800297. PNNL-SA-131810. doi:10.1002/aenm.201800297

Zhao W., L. Zou, J. Zheng, H. Jia, J. Song, M.H. Engelhard, and W. Xu, et al. 2018. "Simultaneous Stabilization of LiNi0.76 Mn0.14Co0.10O2 Cathode and Lithium Metal Anode by Lithium Bis(oxalato)borate as Additive." ChemSusChem 11, no. 13:2211-2220. PNNL-SA-133094. doi:10.1002/cssc.201800706

Zheng J., P. Yan, L. Estevez, C. Wang, and J. Zhang. 2018. "Effect of Calcination Temperature on the Electrochemical Properties of Nickel-rich LiNi0.76Mn0.14Co0.10O2 Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries." Nano Energy 49. PNNL-SA-132502. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.04.077


Bielinski A.R., M. Boban, Y. He, E. Kazyak, D.H. Lee, C. Wang, and A. Tuteja, et al. 2017. "Rational Design Of Hyperbranched Nanowire Systems For Tunable Superomniphobic Surfaces Enabled By Atomic Layer Deposition." ACS Nano 11, no. 1:478-489. PNNL-SA-122424. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b06463

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Duan H., D. Li, Y. Tang, Y. He, S. Ji, R. Wang, and H. Lv, et al. 2017. "High Performance Rh2P Electrocatalyst for Efficient Water Splitting." Journal of the American Chemical Society 139, no. 15:5494-5502. PNNL-SA-123543. doi:10.1021/jacs.7b01376

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