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Scott Lea
Structural Biology IRP Leader

Dr. Scott Lea is the team lead for the Structural Biology team. He provides scientific and technical expertise and leadership, strategy, and scientific productivity of the bioimaging and microscopy capabilities and the Quiet Wing for advanced microscopy. 

Lea has more than 25 years of experience with research related to surface science and optical imaging. His focus areas are related to applying scanning probe, optical, and surface science tools to the study of biomolecules at surfaces, organic-inorganic interfaces, and geochemical processes. He oversees activities and instrumentation in the scanning probe microscopy laboratories and has led the development of a high-pressure atomic force microscope for in-situ imaging of geochemical transformations in supercritical CO2. Dr. Lea has also collaborated with the Raschke group at the University of Colorado Boulder/JILA on the development of a scanning infrared near-field optical microscope for high spatial resolution chemical imaging. He was the principal investigator (PI) on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) project in the Bioimaging Technologies program developing multimodal chemical imaging instrumentation based on near-field scanning probe methods to study microbial interactions (2017-2019) and is currently the PI on a multimodal, multiscale imaging project in the DOE/BER Bioimaging Science program (2019-2021). These projects focus on developing a capability to help in the understanding of metabolic connections in plant and microbial systems across scales. 

Research Interests

  • Developing instrumentation for bioimaging of microbial and plant systems to help understand metabolic processes 

  • Studying the effect of solution composition on calcite dissolution and incorporation of impurities into the calcite to better understand the fate and transport of contaminants in soil  

  • Examining the effect of solution composition and environmental conditions on transformations of minerals at the molecular scale under supercritical carbon dioxide to understand sequestration processes 

  • Investigating interparticle forces between colloids in solution to evaluate their behavior under high salt conditions, understanding the relationship between organic matrix and inorganic crystal in biomineralization  

  • Investigating sample charging and damage due to exposure to X-rays and electron beams during analysis and sputtering effects on nanomaterials. 


  • PhD in Bioengineering, University of Utah, 1993 

  • ME in Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1983 

  • BS in Biochemistry, Lehigh University, 1981 

Awards and Recognition

  • Individual and Outstanding Team Performance Awards, PNNL (2003, 2004) 

  • Curtis C. Johnson Award for Outstanding 2nd Year Bioengineering Student, Graduate Research Fellowship Award, University of Utah (1987) 

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member, AVS Science and Technology Society 

  • Member, ISO-TC201/SC9 International Organization for Standardization, Committee on Surface Chemical Analysis, Scanned Probe Microscopy  

  • Vice-Chair, XPS and AES Subcommittee for ASTM Committee E42 on Surface Analysis 



O'Callahan B.T., K. Park, I.V. Novikova, T. Jian, C. Chen, E.A. Muller, and P.Z. El-Khoury, et al. 2020. "In liquid infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy for chemical and biological nanoimaging." Nano Letters 20, no. 6:4497-4504. PNNL-SA-152805. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01291 


Brown, P., et al. 2019. “Large Expert-Curated Database for Benchmarking Document Similarity Detection in Biomedical Literature Search.” Database 2019: 1-67.

O'Callahan B.T., M. Hentschel, M.B. Raschke, P.Z. El-Khoury, and A. Lea. 2019. "Ultrasensitive Tip- and Antenna-Enhanced Infrared Nanoscopy of Protein Complexes." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 123, no. 28:17505-17509. PNNL-SA-144661. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b05777 

Snyder, M. P., et al. 2019. “The Human Body at Cellular Resolution: The NIH Human Biomolecular Atlas Program.” Nature 574 (7777): 187-192.


O'Callahan, B. T., K. T. Crampton, I. V. Novikova, T. Jian, C. L. Chen, J. E. Evans, M. B. Raschke, P. Z. El-Khoury, and A. S. Lea. 2018. “Imaging Nanoscale Heterogeneity in Ultrathin Biomimetic and Biological Crystals.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C.

Popel, A. J., T. W. Wietsma, M. H. Engelhard, A. S. Lea, O. Qafoku, C. Grygiel, I. Monnet, E. S. Ilton, M. E. Bowden, and I. Farnan. 2018. “The Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Dissolution of UO2 and UO2-Based Simulant Fuel.” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 735: 1350-1356.


Engelhard, M., D. Baer, and S. Lea. 2017. “Erratum: “Beam Damage of Poly(2-Chloroethyl Methylacrylate) [PCEMA] Films as Observed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K, and 373 K” [Surf. Sci. Spectra 10, 80 (2003)].” Surface Science Spectra 24 (2): 028001.


Zhong L., M.J. Truex, N. Kananizadeh, Y. Li, A.S. Lea, and X. Yan. 2015. "Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 175-176. PNNL-SA-106469. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2015.02.001 


Craig I.M., M.S. Taubman, A.S. Lea, M.C. Phillips, E.E. Josberger, and M.B. Raschke. 2013. "Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser." Optics Express 21, no. 25:30401-30414. PNNL-SA-97642. doi:10.1364/OE.21.030401 

Karagulian, F., A. S. Lea, C. W. Dilbeck, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts. 2013. “Erratum: A New Mechanism for Ozonolysis of Unsaturated Organics on Solids: Phosphocholines on NaCl as a Model for Sea Salt Particles (Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (2008) 10 (528-541) Doi: 10.1039/B712715d).” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 15 (48): 21094-21095.


Dimkpa C.O., J.E. McLean, D.W. Britt, W.P. Johnson, B.W. Arey, A.S. Lea, and A.J. Anderson. 2012. "Nanospecific Inhibition of Pyoverdine Siderophore Production in Pseudomonas Chlororaphis O6 by CuO Nanoparticles." Chemical Research in Toxicology 25, no. 5:1066-1074. PNNL-SA-81953. doi:10.1021/tx3000285 


Brown G.E., A. Chaka, D.K. Shuh, E.E. Roden, C.J. Werth, N.J. Hess, and A.R. Felmy, et al. 2011. EMSL Geochemistry, Biogeochemistry and Subsurface Science-Science Theme Advisory Panel Meeting. PNNL-20601. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 

Jiang W., J.S. McCloy, A.S. Lea, J.A. Sundararajan, Q. Yao, and Y. Qiang. 2011. "Magnetization and susceptibility of ion irradiated granular magnetite films." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 83, no. 13:134435:1-8. PNNL-SA-76285. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.134435 

Lea A.S., B.C. Kabius, B.W. Arey, L. Kovarik, C.M. Wang, G. Orr, and I. Lyubinetsky, et al. 2011. "Quietly Building Capabilities: New Instruments, Expertise, "Quiet Wing" Available at DOE User Facility." Microscopy Today 19, no. 5:48-53. PNNL-SA-81095. doi:10.1017/S1551929511000964 

Lea A.S., S.R. Higgins, K.G. Knauss, and K.M. Rosso. 2011. "A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide." Review of Scientific Instruments 82, no. 4:Article No.: 043709. PNNL-SA-77820. 


Baer D.R., A.S. Lea, J. Geller, J.S. Hammond, L. Kover, C.J. Powell, and M.P. Seah, et al. 2010. "Approaches to analyzing insulators with Auger Electron Spectroscopy: Update and Overview." Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 176, no. 1-3, SP ISS:80-94. PNNL-SA-63941. 

Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, A.S. Lea, P. Nachimuthu, T.C. Droubay, J. Kim, and B. Lee, et al. 2010. "Comparison of the Sputter Rates of Oxide Films Relative to the Sputter Rate of SiO2." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 28, no. 5:1060-1072. PNNL-SA-67505. doi:10.1116/1.3456123 

Lea A.S., K.R. Swanson, J.N. Haack, J.E. Castle, S.M. Tougaard, and D.R. Baer. 2010. "An Application for Near Real-time Analysis of XPS Data." Surface and Interface Analysis 42, no. 6-7:1061-1065. PNNL-SA-68239. doi:10.1002/sia.3304 

Saraf L.V., D.R. Baer, A.S. Lea, Z. Zhu, J.J. Strohm, S.D. Sitzman, and D.L. King. 2010. "Bulk Migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ during Reducing Conditions." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157, no. 4:B463-B469. PNNL-SA-64179. doi:10.1149/1.3298442 

Badireddy A.R., S. Chellam, P.L. Gassman, M.H. Engelhard, A.S. Lea, and K.M. Rosso. 2010. "Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Bioflocculation of Activated Sludge Microorganisms under Glucose-Controlled Conditions." Water Research 44, no. 2010:4505-4516. PNNL-SA-66541. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.024 

Tarasevich B.J., A.S. Lea, and W.J. Shaw. 2010. "The leucine rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) adsorbs as monomers or dimers onto surfaces." Journal of Structural Biology 169, no. 3:266-276. PNNL-SA-62449. 


Stadermann F.J., C. Floss, M.P. Bose, and A.S. Lea. 2009. "The Use of Auger Spectroscopy for the in situ Elemental Characterization of Sub-micrometer Presolar Grains." Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44, no. 7:1033-1049. PNNL-SA-62442.

Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, A.R. Felmy, J.J. Ford, J.Z. Hu, A.S. Lea, and P. Nachimuthu, et al. 2009. "New Approaches for Characterizing Sensor and Other Modern Complex Materials." ECS Transactions 19, no. 6:137-148. PNNL-SA-65017. doi:10.1149/1.3118546 

Tarasevich B.J., A.S. Lea, W. Bernt, M.H. Engelhard, and W.J. Shaw. 2009. "Changes in the quaternary structure of amelogenin when adsorbed onto surfaces." Biopolymers 91, no. 2:103-107. PNNL-SA-59236. doi:10.1002/bip.21095 

Zhu Z., P. Nachimuthu, and A.S. Lea. 2009. "Molecular Depth Profiling of Sucrose Films: A Comparative Study of C60n? Ions and Traditional Cs? and O2? Ions." Analytical Chemistry 81, no. 20:8272-8279. PNNL-SA-65186. doi:10.1021/ac900553z 

Strohm J.J., D.L. King, L.V. Saraf, A.S. Lea, C.M. Wang, and P. Singh. 2009. "Influence of Reduction Pretreatment and Methane Reforming on Nickel Solubility in YSZ Grains and Nickel Sintering within Ni-YSZ SOFC Anode Materials." In Preprint Papers, American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, The 238th ACS National Meeting, August 16-20, 2009, Washington, DC., FUEL 158. Washington, District Of Columbia: American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-67016. 

Tarasevich B.J., A.S. Lea, W. Bernt, M.H. Engelhard, and W.J. Shaw. 2009. "Adsorption of Amelogenin onto Self-Assembled and Fluoroapatite Surfaces." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113, no. 7:1833-1842. PNNL-SA-62448. 


Badireddy A.R., B. Korpol, S. Chellam, P.L. Gassman, M.H. Engelhard, A.S. Lea, and K.M. Rosso. 2008. "Spectroscopic Characterization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens: Suppression using Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Bismuth Thiols." Biomacromolecules 9, no. 11:3079-3089. PNNL-SA-60712. doi:10.1021/bm800600p 

Karagulian F., A.S. Lea, C.W. Dilbeck, and B.J. Finlayson-Pitts. 2008. "A New Mechanism for Ozonolysis of Unsaturated Organics on Solids: Phosphocholines on NaCl as A Model for Sea Salt particles." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 10, no. 4:528-541. PNNL-SA-56918. doi:10.1039/b712715d 

Yada T., C. Floss, F.J. Stadermann, E. Zinner, T. Nakamura, T. Noguchi, and A.S. Lea. 2008. "Stardust in Antarctic Micrometeorites." Meteoritics and Planetary Science 43, no. 8:1287-1298. PNNL-SA-56094. 


Saraf L.V., M.H. Engelhard, and A.S. Lea. 2007. "Fabrication of SiO2 Microdisk Arrays for Optics and Light Trapping Experiments." Microelectronic Engineering 84, no. 12:2799-2803. PNNL-SA-51921. doi:10.1016/j.mee.2007.02.001 

Devineni D.P., S. Stormo, W. Kempf, J. Schenkel, R. Behanan, A.S. Lea, and D.W. Galipeau. 2007. "Metal-oxide Nanowires for Toxic Gas Detection." In Nanotech 2005, edited by M Laudon and BF Romanowicz, 2, 519-522. Danville, California: Nano Science and Technology Institute (NSTI). PNNL-SA-52754. 

Saraf L.V., M.H. Engelhard, C.M. Wang, A.S. Lea, D.E. McCready, V. Shutthanandan, and D.R. Baer, et al. 2007. "Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6 tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor." Journal of Materials Research 22, no. 5:1230-1234. PNNL-SA-51436. doi:10.1557/JMR.2007.0146 

Saraf L.V., M.H. Engelhard, P. Nachimuthu, V. Shutthanandan, C.M. Wang, S.M. Heald, and D.E. McCready, et al. 2007. "Nucleation and Growth of MOCVD Grown (Cr, Zn)O Films – Uniform Doping vs. Secondary Phase Formation." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 154, no. 3:D134-D138. PNNL-SA-51245. doi:10.1149/1.2424422 

Saraf L.V., M.H. Engelhard, C.M. Wang, A.S. Lea, D.E. McCready, V. Shutthanandan, and D.R. Baer, et al. 2007. "Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor." Journal of Materials Research 22, no. 5:1230-1234. PNNL-SA-52809. doi:10.1557/JMR.2007.0146 


Mcintire T.M., R. Smalley, J.T. Newberg, A.S. Lea, J.C. Hemminger, and B.J. Finlayson-Pitts. 2006. "Substrate Changes Associated with the Chemistry of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Silicon." Langmuir 22, no. 13:5617-5624. PNNL-SA-47974. doi:10.1021/la060153l 

Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, C.M. Wang, A.S. Lea, and K.H. Pecher. 2006. "The Challenges and Opportunities of Measuring Properties of Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials: Importance of a Multi-Technique Approach." In 2006 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology: April 26-28, 2006, Atlanta, Georgia. Norcross, Georgia: TAPPI, Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. PNNL-SA-48437. 

Kaspar T.C., T.C. Droubay, D.E. McCready, P. Nachimuthu, S.M. Heald, C.M. Wang, and A.S. Lea, et al. 2006. "Magnetic properties of epitaxial Co-doped anatase TiO2 thin films with excellent structural quality." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B--Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 24, no. 4:2012-2017. PNNL-SA-48059. doi:10.1116/1.2216723 

Floss C., F.J. Stadermann, J.P. Bradley, Z. Dai, S. Bajt, G. Giles, and A.S. Lea. 2006. "Identification of Isotopically Primitive Interplanetary Dust Particles: A NanoSIMS Isotopic Imaging Study." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, no. 9:2371-2399. PNNL-SA-46541. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.01.023 

Liu G., J. Wang, A.S. Lea, and Y. Lin. 2006. "Bioassay Labels Based on Apoferritin Nanovehicles." Chembiochem 7, no. 9:1315-1319. PNNL-SA-47959. doi:10.1002/cbic.200600225 


Lyubinetsky I., A.S. Lea, S. Thevuthasan, and D.R. Baer. 2005. "Formation of Epitaxial Oxide Nanodots on Oxide Substrate: Cu2O on SrTiO3(100)." Surface Science 589, no. 1-3:120-128. PNNL-SA-43524. 

Kaspar T.C., T.C. Droubay, C.M. Wang, S.M. Heald, A.S. Lea, and S.A. Chambers. 2005. "Co-doped Anatase TiO2 Heteroepitaxy on Si(001)." Journal of Applied Physics 97, no. 7:073511-073511-10. PNNL-SA-42653. doi:10.1063/1.1868854 

Mcintire T.M., A.S. Lea, D.J. Gaspar, N. Jaitly, Y. Dubowski, Q. Li, and B.J. Finlayson-Pitts. 2005. "Unusual aggregates from the oxidation of alkene self-assembled monolayers: a previously unrecognized mechanism for SAM ozonolysis?." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 7. PNNL-SA-44568. doi:10.1039/b508147e 

Arjunan V., J. Lamb, D. Chandra, J. Daemen, D.A. Jones, M.H. Engelhard, and A.S. Lea. 2005. "Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Low Carbon I-Beam Steels In Simulated Yucca Mountain Repository Environment." Corrosion 61, no. 4:381-391. PNNL-SA-39122. 

Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, A.S. Lea, and L.V. Saraf. 2005. "Simple Method for Estimating and Comparing of X-Ray Damage Rates." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 23, no. 6:1740-1744. PNNL-SA-43208. doi:10.1116/1.2073387 


Kim Y.J., S. Thevuthasan, T.C. Droubay, A.S. Lea, C.M. Wang, V. Shutthanandan, and S.A. Chambers, et al. 2004. "Growth and Properties of molecular beam epitaxially grown ferromagnetic Fe-doped TiO2 rutile films on TiO2." Applied Physics Letters 84, no. 18:3531-3533. PNNL-SA-40048. 

Saraf L.V., J.S. Young, A.S. Lea, S. Thevuthasan, G.C. Dunham, J.W. Grate, and D.R. Baer. 2004. "Lateral Ordering of Microfabricated SiO2 Nanotips." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 7, no. 1:C7-C9. PNNL-SA-38264. 

Deodeshmukh V., A. Venugopal, D. Chandra, A. Yilmaz, J. Daemen, D.A. Jones, and A.S. Lea, et al. 2004. "X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Analyses of Corrosion Products Formed on Rock Bolt Carbon Steel in Chloride Media with Bicarbonate and Silicate Ions." Corrosion Science 46, no. 11:2629-2649. PNNL-SA-42673. 

Williford R.E., D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, and A.S. Lea. 2004. "Dissolution and Growth of (10(1) over-bar4) Calcite in Flowing Water: Estimation of Back Reaction Rates via Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations." Journal of Crystal Growth 262, no. 1-4:503-518. PNNL-SA-39589. 

Lyubinetsky I., A. El-Azab, A.S. Lea, S. Thevuthasan, and D.R. Baer. 2004. "Initial Stages of Oxide Nanodot Heteroepitaxial Growth: Cu2O on SrTiO3(100)." Applied Physics Letters 85, no. 19:4481-4483. PNNL-SA-42675. 


Baer D.R., D.J. Gaspar, M.H. Engelhard, and A.S. Lea. 2003. "Beam Effects During AES and XPS Analysis." In Surface Analysis by Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Chichester: IM Publications. PNNL-SA-38633. 

Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, and A.S. Lea. 2003. "Introduction to Surface Science Spectra Data on Electron and X-ray Damage: Sample Degradation during XPS and AES Measurements." Surface Science Spectra 10, no. 1-4:47-56. PNNL-SA-41724. 

Engelhard M.H., D.R. Baer, and A.S. Lea. 2003. "Beam damage of poly(2-chloroethyl methylacrylate) [PCEMA] films as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K, and 373 K." Surface Science Spectra 10. PNNL-SA-39571. 

Chambers S.A., T.C. Droubay, C.M. Wang, A.S. Lea, R. Farrow, L. Folks, and V. Deline, et al. 2003. "Clusters and Magnetism in Epitaxial Co-doped TiO2 Anatase." Applied Physics Letters 82, no. 8:1257-1259. PNNL-SA-37993. 

Nachimuthu P., S. Thevuthasan, Y.J. Kim, A.S. Lea, V. Shutthanandan, M.H. Engelhard, and D.R. Baer, et al. 2003. "Investigation of Copper(I) Oxide Quantum Dots by Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy." Chemistry of Materials 20, no. 15:3939-3946. PNNL-SA-37777. 

Engelhard M.H., D.R. Baer, and A.S. Lea. 2003. "Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) [PVC] as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K and 373 K." Surface Science Spectra 10. PNNL-SA-39575. 

Lea A.S., T.T. Hurt, A. El-Azab, J.E. Amonette, and D.R. Baer. 2003. "Heteroepitaxial Growth of a Manganese Carbonate secondary Nano-Phase on the (101_4) Surface of Calcite in Solution." Surface Science 524, no. 1-3:63-77. PNNL-SA-36252. 

Lea A.S., M.H. Engelhard, and D.R. Baer. 2003. "Electron Beam Damage in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Poly(Acrylonitrile) as Observed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy." Surface Science Spectra 10. PNNL-SA-39573. 

Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, A.S. Lea, and D.J. Gaspar. 2003. "Appendix F: Comparing Beam Damage Rates Using Susceptibility Tables." In Surface Analysis by Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, edited by D. Briggs and J.T. Grant. 845-856. Manchester:SurfaceSpectra Ltd. & IM Publications. PNNL-SA-38715. 


Rouse A.A., C. Szeles, J. Ndap, S. Soldner, K.B. Parnham, D.J. Gaspar, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2002. "Interfacial Chemistry and the Performance of Bromine-etched CdZnTe Radiation Detector Devices." IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 49, no. 4:2005-2009. PNNL-SA-35472. 

Chambers S.A., C.M. Wang, S. Thevuthasan, T.C. Droubay, D.E. McCready, A.S. Lea, and V. Shutthanandan, et al. 2002. "Epitaxial Growth and Properties of MBE Grown Ferromagnetic Co-doped TiO2 Anatase Films on SrTiO3(001) and LaAlO3(001)." Thin Solid Films 418, no. 2:197-210. PNNL-SA-35981. 

Baer D.R., Y. Liang, A.S. Lea, J.E. Amonette, and N.G. Colton. 2002. "Scanning Force Microscopy Measurements of Dissolution and Growth Processes: CaCO3 Examples." In State-of-the-Art Applications of Surface and Interface Analysis Methods to Environmental Material Interactions: In Honor of James E. Castle's 65th Year, edited by D.R. Baer, C.R. Clayton, G.D. Davis, et. al., 2001-5, 139-148. Pennington, New Jersey: The Electrochemical Society, Inc. PNNL-SA-33715(a). 

Gaspar D.J., A.S. Lea, M.H. Engelhard, D.R. Baer, R. Miehr, and P.G. Tratnyek. 2002. "Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron." Langmuir 18, no. 20:7688-7693. PNNL-SA-36208. 

Lea A.S., J.E. Amonette, A. El-Azab, D.R. Baer, S.M. Heald, and N.G. Colton. 2002. "Manganese at Calcite Surfaces: Molecular-Scale Studies of Dissolution and Heteroepitaxy." In Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, April 7-11, 2002, Orlando, FL, 223, U605. Washington DC: American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-35650. 

Baer D.R., M.H. Engelhard, D.J. Gaspar, A.S. Lea, and C.F. Windisch. 2002. "Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types." Surface and Interface Analysis 33. PNNL-SA-36726. 


Liang Y., A.S. Lea, D.E. McCready, and P. Meethunkij. 2001. "Synthesis and Characterization of Self-Assembled Cu2O Nano-Dots." In State-of-the-art application of surface and interface analysis methods to environmental material interactions: in honor of James E. Castle's 65th year, proceedings of the international symposium held from March 26-27, 2001, in Washington. Proceedings -- Electrochemical Society, edited by D.R. Baer, C.R. Clayton, G.P. Halada, G.D. David, 2001, 125-133. Pennington, New Jersey: The Electrochemical Society. PNNL-SA-34538. 

Lea A.S., J.E. Amonette, D.R. Baer, Y. Liang, and N.G. Colton. 2001. "Microscopic Effects of Carbonate, Manganese, and Strontium ions on Calcite Dissolution." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65, no. 3:369-379. PNNL-SA-32129. 

Paparazzo E., A.S. Lea, D.R. Baer, and J.P. Northover. 2001. "Scanning Auger Microscopy Studies of an Ancient Bronze." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 19, no. 4 PT 1:1126-1133. PNNL-SA-33122. 


Gao Y., S. He, P.V. Alluri, M.H. Engelhard, A.S. Lea, J.M. Finder, and B. Melnick, et al. 2000. "Effects of precursors and substrate materials on microstructure dielectric properties, and step coverage of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition." Journal of Applied Physics 87, no. 1:124-132. PNWD-SA-5299. 

Petrik N.G., K. Knutsen, E. Paparazzo, A.S. Lea, D.M. Camaioni, and T.M. Orlando. 2000. "Electron Beam Induced Damage of NaNO3 Single Crystals: An Energy, Temperature, and Quantum State Resolved Study." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104, no. 7:1563-1571. PNNL-SA-32130. 

Gao Y., S. He, P.V. Alluri, A.S. Lea, J. Finder, B. Melnick, and R.L. Hance. 2000. "Effects of Precursors and Substrate Materials on Microstructure, Dielectric Properties and Step Coverage of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Films Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition." Journal of Applied Physics 87, no. 1:124-132. PNNL-SA-31431. 


Gao Y., P.V. Alluri, S. He, M.H. Engelhard, A.S. Lea, B. Melnick, and R.L. Hance. 1999. "Surface Roughness and Growth Texture of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Thin Films Formed by MOCVD." In Ferroelectric Thin Films VII, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, edited by R.E. Jones, 541, 29-34. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-30152. 


Liang Y., D.R. Baer, and A.S. Lea. 1995. "Dissolution of CaCO3(1014) Surface." In Evolution of Thin Film and Surface Structure and Morphology: Symposium held November 28-December 2, 1994, Boston, MA. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, edited by B.M. Clemens, et al, 355, 409-414. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-25611. doi:10.1557/PROC-355-409 


Lea, A.S., J. D. Andrade, and V. Hlady, “Compression of Polyethylene Glycol Chains Grafted onto Silicon Nitride Surface as Measured by Scanning Force Microscopy”, Colloids and Surfaces, A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 93 (1994) 349-357. 


Lea, A.S., Ph. D. Dissertation, “Steric Exclusion Forces and Protein Imaging Using the Atomic Force Microscope”, University of Utah, August 1993. 

Lea, A.S., J. D. Andrade, and V. Hlady, “Measurement of Steric Exclusion Forces with the Atomic Force Microscope”, In ACS Symposium Series 532, Colloid-Polymer Interactions: Particulate, Amphiphilic, and Biological Surfaces, P.L. Dubin and P. Tong, eds., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1993. 


Lea, A.S., A. Pungor, V. Hlady, J. D. Andrade, J. N. Herron, and E. W. Voss, Jr., “Manipulation of Proteins on Mica by Atomic Force Microscopy”, Langmuir 8 (1992) 68-73. 

Andrade, J.D., V. Hlady, A.-P. Wei, C.-H. Ho, A. S. Lea, S. I. Jeon, Y. S. Lin, and E. W. Stroup, “Proteins at Interfaces: Principles, Multivariate Aspects, Protein Resistant Surfaces, and Direct Imaging and Manipulation of Adsorbed Proteins”, Clinical Materials 11 (1992) 67-84. 


Marchant, R.E., A. S. Lea, J. D. Andrade, P. Brockenstedt, and D. Ginsberg, “Interactions of Von Willebrand Factor on Mica Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 148(1) (1992) 261-272. 

Lin, J.N., B. Drake, A. S. Lea, P. K. Hansma, and J. D. Andrade, “Direct Observation of Immunoglobulin Adsorption Dynamics Using the Atomic Force Microscope”, Langmuir 6 (1990) 509-511, reprinted in “Biosensor Technology, Fundamentals and Applications,” R. P. Buck, W. E. Hatfield, M. Umana, and E. F. Bowden eds., Marcel Dekker, NY 1990. 

Lin, J.N., B. Drake, A. S. Lea, P. K. Hansma, and J. D. Andrade, “Direct Observation of Immunoglobulin Adsorption Dynamics Using the Atomic Force Microscope”, Langmuir 6 (1990) 509-511.