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Zihua Zhu

Dr. Zihua Zhu is a chemist with the Terrestrial-Atmosphere Processes team. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) expert, with extensive experience in time-of-flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS) and nanoscale SIMS (NanoSIMS), Zhu’s research has focused on the SIMS field for over 20 years. He has published over 160 articles in high-impact journals and is a key inventor (with four U.S. patents) of in situ liquid SIMS. He leads the applications of this new capability to better understand the complex chemistries occurring at solid-electrolyte interphase in novel Li ion batteries, electro-catalysis, biofilm growth, cell attachment, aerosol formation, ion solvation, and initial nucleation of nanoparticle formation.

Research Interests

  • Applying ToF-SIMS and principal component analysis on various research fields, primarily biological and environmental fields
  • Using in situ liquid SIMS to investigate solid-liquid interface under operando condition, as well as weak interactions, such as ion solvation, ion-pair formation, and initial nucleation, in various liquids 
  • Nanoscale chemical imaging using ToF-SIMS and NanoSIMS
  • Three-dimensional molecular imaging of interesting biological and environmental samples


  • PhD in Analytical Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, 2006
  • MS in Chemistry, Peking University, 2000
  • BS in Chemistry, Peking University, 1997

Awards and Recognition

  • Peter M.A. Sherwood Mid-Career Professional Award, American Vacuum Society-Applied Surface Science Division (2018)
  • Technology Transfer Awards for Excellence in Technology Transfer Award, Federal Laboratory Consortium (2015)
  • R&D 100 Award (2014)

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • American Vacuum Society
  • American Geophysical Union


  • Zhu, Zihua and Wang, Chongmin. December 2019. “Battery Cell and In-Situ Battery Electrode Analysis Method.” U.S. Patent 10,505,234
  • Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J. March 2016 and June 2019. “Microfluidic Electrochemical Device and Process for Chemical Imaging and Electrochemical Analysis at the Electrode-Liquid Interface In-Situ.” U.S. Patent 9,274,059 and 10,330,626
  • Cowin, James P; Iedema, Martin J; Yang, Li; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zhu, Zihua. October 2013. "Systems and Methods for Analyzing Liquids Under Vacuum." U.S. Patent 8,555,710



Guo, W., M. Kanski, W. Liu, M. Gołuński, Y. Zhou, Y. Wang, C. Cheng, Y. Du, Z. Postawa, W. D. Wei, and Z. Zhu. 2020. “Three-Dimensional Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Biological Structures Using a Vacuum-Compatible Microfluidic Device.” Analytical Chemistry 92 (20): 13785-13793.

Jia F., K. Wu, Y. Che, Y. Zhang, F. Zeng, Q. Luo, and X. Yu, et al. 2020. "ToF-SIMS Analysis of Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Beijing." Surface and Interface Analysis 52, no. 5:272-282. PNNL-SA-148819. doi:10.1002/sia.6710

Jiang W., T. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, L. Shao, and D.J. Senor. 2020. "Deuterium diffusion in gamma-LiAlO2 pellets irradiated with He+ and D2+ ions." Journal of Nuclear Materials 538. PNNL-SA-150710. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2020.152357

Keles O., B. Karahan, L. Eryilmaz, R. Amine, A. Abouimrane, Z. Chen, and X. Zuo, et al. 2020. "Superlattice-Structured Films by Magnetron Sputtering as New Era Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries." Nano Energy 76. PNNL-SA-154905. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105094

Liu J., E. Jia, K.A. Stoerzinger, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, and D. Shen, et al. 2020. "Dynamic Lattice Oxygen Participation on Perovskite LaNiO3 During Oxygen Evolution Reaction." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 124, no. 28:15386-15390. PNNL-SA-152668. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c04808

Liu W., L. Huang, R.E. Komorek, P. Handakumbura, Y. Zhou, D. Hu, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2020. "Correlative Surface Imaging Reveals Chemical Signatures for Bacterial Hotspots on Plant Roots." Analyst 145, no. 2:393-401. PNNL-SA-149225. doi:10.1039/C9AN01954E

Sabale S.R., D. Barpaga, J. Yao, L. Kovarik, Z. Zhu, S. Chatterjee, and B.P. McGrail, et al. 2020. "Understanding Time Dependence on Zinc Metal-Organic Framework Growth Using In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 12, no. 4:5090-5098. PNNL-SA-148177. doi:10.1021/acsami.9b19991

Shen Y., J. Yao, J. Son, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2020. "Liquid ToF-SIMS revealing the oil, water, and surfactant interface evolution." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 22, no. 21:11771-11782. PNNL-SA-147881. doi:10.1039/D0CP00528B

Song J., K. Wang, J. Zheng, M.H. Engelhard, B. Xiao, E. Hu, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2020. "Controlling Surface Phase Transition and Chemical Reactivity of O3-Layered Metal Oxide Cathodes for High-Performance Na-ion Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 5, no. 6:1718-1725. PNNL-SA-141318. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.0c00700

Wei W., A.E. Plymale, Z. Zhu, X. Ma, F. Liu, and X. Yu. 2020. "In Vivo Molecular Insights into Syntrophic Geobacter Aggregates." Analytical Chemistry 92, no. 15:10402-10411. PNNL-SA-151938. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00653

Yu J., Y. Zhou, M.H. Engelhard, Y. Zhang, J. Son, S. Liu, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2020. "In situ molecular imaging of adsorbed protein films in water indicating hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity." Scientific Reports 10, no. 1:Article No. 3695. PNNL-SA-152103. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-60428-1

Zeng Q., L. Huang, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, H. Chen, Q. Shi, and W. Liu, et al. 2020. "Bio-reduction of Ferrihydrite-montmorillonite-organic Matter Complexes: Effect of Montmorillonite and Fate of Organic Matter." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 276. PNNL-SA-152385. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2020.03.011

Zhang Y., W. Zeng, F. Jia, J. Ye, Y. Zhao, Q. Luo, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2020. "Cisplatin-Induced Alteration on Membrane Composition of A549 Cells Revealed by ToF-SIMS." Surface and Interface Analysis 52, no. 5:256-263. PNNL-SA-152291. doi:10.1002/sia.6714

Zhao Y., H. Huang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, F. Zeng, J. Wang, and X. Yu, et al. 2020. "Atmospheric Particulate Characterization by ToF-SIMS in an Urban Site in Beijing." Atmospheric Environment 220. PNNL-SA-148815. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.117090

Zhou Y., M. Su, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Ren, and R. Cao, et al. 2020. "Real-time mass spectrometric characterization of the solid-electrolyte interphase of a lithium-ion battery." Nature Nanotechnology 15, no. 3:224-230. PNNL-SA-144845. doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0618-4

Zuo H., R.K. Kukkadapu, Z. Zhu, S. Ni, L. Huang, Q. Zeng, and C. Liu, et al. 2020. "Role of clay-associated humic substances in catalyzing bioreduction of structural Fe(III) in nontronite by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32." Science of the Total Environment 741. PNNL-SA-153739. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140213


Bonnin E.A., Z. Zhu, J.S. Fehrenbacher, A.D. Russell, B. Honisch, H.J. Spero, and A.C. Gagnon. 2019. "Submicron Sodium Banding in Cultured Planktic Foraminifera Shells." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 253. PNNL-SA-142331. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.03.024

Cui W., X. Zhang, C.I. Pearce, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, W. Liu, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2019. "Cr(III) adsorption by cluster formation on boehmite nanoplates in highly alkaline solution." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 18:11043-11055. PNNL-SA-143650. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b02693

Ding Y., Y. Zhou, J. Yao, Y. Xiong, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Molecular evidence of toxic effect on the biofilm and its matrix." The Analyst 144, no. 8:2498-2503. PNNL-SA-135367. doi:10.1039/C8AN02512F

Grant J.S., P.M. Richards, C.R. Anderton, Z. Zhu, T.E. Mattes, and S.K. Shaw. 2019. "Passively Sampled Environmental Films Show Geographic Variability and Host a Variety of Microorganisms." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 3, no. 12:2726-2735. PNNL-SA-148657. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00234

Grant J.S., Z. Zhu, C.R. Anderton, and S.K. Shaw. 2019. "Physical and Chemical Morphology of Passively Sampled Environmental Films." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 3, no. 2:305-313. PNNL-SA-141016. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00158

Lee K., B.J. Riley, H. Park, J. Choi, S. Han, J. Hur, and J.A. Peterson, et al. 2019. "Investigation of physical and chemical properties for upgraded SAP (SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5) waste form to immobilize radioactive waste salt." Journal of Nuclear Materials 515, no. 2019:382-391. PNNL-SA-130870. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2019.01.004

Lim Z., N. Quackenbush, A. Penn, M. Chrysler, M.E. Bowden, Z. Zhu, and J. Ablett, et al. 2019. "Charge Transfer and Built-in Electric Fields between a Crystalline Oxide and Silicon." Physical Review Letters 123, no. 2:Article No.026805. PNNL-SA-138000. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.026805

Lim Z., N. Quackenbush, A. Penn, M. Chrysler, M.E. Bowden, Z. Zhu, and J. Ablett, et al. 2019. "Charge Transfer and Built-in Electric Fields Between a Crystalline Oxide and Silicon." Physical Review Letters 123, no. 2:Article Number 026805. PNNL-SA-144010. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.026805

Mulcahy J.R., S. He, D.S. Jin, W. Guo, S. Arteta, J.B. Cliff, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2019. "Experimental Insights into the Growth of Single Truncated Anatase Bipyramids." Chemistry - A European Journal 25, no. 4:993-996. PNNL-SA-140103. doi:10.1002/chem.201805773

Ren X., L. Zou, X. Cao, M.H. Engelhard, W. Liu, S.D. Burton, and H. Lee, et al. 2019. "Enabling High-Voltage Lithium-Metal Batteries under Practical Conditions." Joule 3, no. 7:1662-1676. PNNL-SA-140396. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2019.05.006

Wang J., Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Hua, F. Wang, Y. Long, and Z. Zhu. 2019. "Direct Molecular Evidence of Proton Transfer and Mass Dynamics at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 10, no. 2:251-258. PNNL-SA-140106. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b03282

Yao J., A.D. Guzman, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Imaging Corrosion at the Metal-Paint Interface Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Visualized Experiments. PNNL-SA-139971. doi:10.3791/59523

Zhang F., X. Yu, J. Chen, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Dark air-liquid interfacial chemistry of glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide." npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 2, no. 1:Article No. 28. PNNL-SA-146695. doi:10.1038/s41612-019-0085-5

Zhang F., X. Yu, X. Sui, J. Chen, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Evolution of aqSOA from the air-liquid interfacial photochemistry of glyoxal and hydroxyl radicals." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 17:10236-10245. PNNL-SA-135488. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b03642

Zhang J., Y. Zhang, M. Collin, S. Gin, J.J. Neeway, T. Wang, and Z. Zhu. 2019. "Nanoscale Imaging of Hydrogen and Sodium in Alteration Layers of Corroded Glass using ToF-SIMS: Is an Auxiliary Sputtering Ion Beam Necessary?." Surface and Interface Analysis 51, no. 2:219-225. PNNL-SA-133548. doi:10.1002/sia.6571

Zhang Y., J. Wang, X. Yu, D.R. Baer, Y. Zhao, L. Mao, and F. Wang, et al. 2019. "Potential-Dynamic Surface Chemistry Controls the Electro-catalytic Processes of Ethanol Oxidation on Gold Surfaces." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 1:215-221. PNNL-SA-139752. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b02019

Zhang Y., W. Zeng, L. Huang, W. Liu, E. Jia, Y. Zhao, and F. Wang, et al. 2019. "In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Surprisingly Soft Ionization Process for Investigation of Halide Ion Hydration." Analytical Chemistry 91, no. 11:7039-7046. PNNL-SA-140384. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.8b05804


Chambers S.A., Y. Du, Z. Zhu, J. Wang, M.J. Wahila, L.J. Piper, and A. Prakash, et al. 2018. "Interconversion of intrinsic defects in SrTiO3(001)." Physical Review B 97, no. 24:245204. PNNL-SA-131613. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.245204

Fu Y., Y. Zhang, F. Zhang, J. Chen, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2018. "Does interfacial photochemistry play a role in the photolysis of pyruvic acid in water?." Atmospheric Environment 191. PNNL-SA-137894. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.07.061

Jiang W., S.R. Spurgeon, Z. Zhu, X. Yu, K. Kruska, T. Wang, and J.G. Gigax, et al. 2018. "Chemical imaging and diffusion of hydrogen and lithium in lithium aluminate." Journal of Nuclear Materials 511. PNNL-SA-134630. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.08.057

Luo L., M. Su, P. Yan, L. Zou, D.K. Schreiber, D.R. Baer, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2018. "Atomic Origins of Water-Vapour-Promoted Alloy Oxidation." Nature Materials 17, no. 6:514-518. PNNL-SA-124752. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0078-5

Terban M.W., D. Banerjee, S. Ghose, B.K. Medasani, A.K. Shukla, B.A. Legg, and Y. Zhou, et al. 2018. "Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution." Nanoscale 10, no. 9:4291-4300. PNNL-SA-132466. doi:10.1039/C7NR07949D

Yan F., L. Liu, T.R. Walsh, Y. Gong, P.Z. El-Khoury, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2018. "Controlled synthesis of highly-branched plasmonic gold nanoparticles through peptoid engineering." Nature Communications 9. PNNL-SA-118537. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04789-2

Yu X., J. Yao, D.B. Lao, D.J. Heldebrant, Z. Zhu, D. Malhotra, and M. Nguyen, et al. 2018. "Mesoscopic Structure Facilitates Rapid CO2 Transport and Reactivity in CO2 Capture Solvents." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 9, no. 19:5765-5771. PNNL-SA-129707. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b02231

Zhang J., J. Zhao, W. Jiang, X. Guan, H. Peng, Z. Zhu, and T. Wang. 2018. "Formation of bubbles and blisters in hydrogen ion implanted polycrystalline tungsten." Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 173, no. 11-12:1027-1036. PNNL-SA-138548. doi:10.1080/10420150.2018.1531411

Zhang J., W. Jiang, Z. Zhu, L. Shao, L. Price, J. Zhao, and T. Wang. 2018. "Thermal Annealing Behavior of Hydrogen and Surface Topography of H2+ Ion Implanted Tungsten." Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 55, no. 7:703-708. PNNL-SA-131482. doi:10.1080/00223131.2018.1428126

Zhang K.H., G. Li, S.R. Spurgeon, L. Wang, P. Yan, Z. Wang, and M. Gu, et al. 2018. "Creation And Ordering Of Oxygen Vacancies At WO3-d And Perovskite Interfaces." Advanced Materials Interfaces 10, no. 20:17480-17486. PNNL-SA-110314. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b03278

Zhang K.L., G. Li, S.R. Spurgeon, L. Wang, P. Yan, Z. Wang, and M. Gu, et al. 2018. "Creation and Ordering of Oxygen Vacancies at WO3-d and Perovskite Interfaces." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, no. 20:17480-17486. PNNL-SA-132665. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b03278

Zhang Y., M. Su, X. Yu, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, R. Cao, and W. Xu, et al. 2018. "Investigation of Ion-Solvent Interactions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes Using in Situ Liquid SIMS." Analytical Chemistry 90, no. 5:3341-3348. PNNL-SA-131962. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04921


Chang Q., P. Rudenko, D. Miller, J. Wen, D. Berman, Y. Zhang, and B.W. Arey, et al. 2017. "Operando Formation Of An Ultra-low Friction Boundary Film From Synthetic Magnesium Silicon Hydroxide Additive." Tribology International 110. PNNL-SA-124211. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2017.02.003

Fehrenbacher J.S., A.D. Russell, C.V. Davis, A.C. Gagnon, H.J. Spero, J.B. Cliff, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2017. "Link between light-triggered Mg-banding and chamber formation in the planktic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei." Nature Communications 8. PNNL-SA-123433. doi:10.1038/ncomms15441

Green T., I. Kuznetsov, D.G. Willingham, B.E. Naes, G.C. Eiden, Z. Zhu, and W. Chao, et al. 2017. "Characterization of Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry for actinide Trace Analysis and Nanoscale Isotopic Imaging." Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 32, no. 6:1092-1100. PNNL-SA-123647. doi:10.1039/C7JA00088J

Jiang W., J. Zhang, D.J. Edwards, N.R. Overman, Z. Zhu, L. Price, and J. Gigax, et al. 2017. "Nanostructural Evolution and Behavior of H and Li in Ion-Implanted Gamma-LiAlO2." Journal of Nuclear Materials 494. PNNL-SA-124540. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.07.048

Jiang W., J. Zhang, L. Kovarik, Z. Zhu, L. Price, J. Gigax, and E. Castanon, et al. 2017. "Irradiation effects and hydrogen behavior in H2+ and He+ implanted gamma-LiAlO2 single crystals." Journal of Nuclear Materials 484. PNNL-SA-114795. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2016.03.014

Komorek R.E., W. Wei, X. Yu, E.A. Hill, J. Yao, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2017. "In Situ Characterization of Shewanella oneidensis MR1 Biofilms by SALVI and ToF-SIMS." Journal of Visualized Experiments. PNNL-SA-123316. doi:10.3791/55944

Riley B.J., J.D. Vienna, S.M. Frank, J.O. Kroll, J.A. Peterson, N.L. Canfield, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2017. "Glass Binder Development for a Glass-Bonded Sodalite Ceramic Waste Form." Journal of Nuclear Materials 489. PNNL-SA-123338. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.03.041

Song H., X. Yu, Q. Huang, M. Qiao, T. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Liu, et al. 2017. "Microstructural, Mechanical and Optical Properties Research of a Carbon Ion-irradiated Y2SiO5 Crystal." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 406. PNNL-SA-130400. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2017.01.038

Sui X., Y. Zhou, F. Zhang, J. Chen, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2017. "Deciphering the Aqueous Chemistry of Glyoxal Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide Using Molecular Imaging." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 19, no. 31:20357-20366. PNNL-SA-118186. doi:10.1039/C7CP02071F

Wang Z., Y. Zhang, B. Liu, K. Wu, S. Thevuthasan, D.R. Baer, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2017. "In Situ Mass Spectrometric Monitoring Of The Dynamic Electrochemical Process At The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface: A SIMS Approach." Analytical Chemistry 89, no. 1:960-965. PNNL-SA-122793. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04189

Wei W., R.E. Komorek, Y. Zhang, A.E. Plymale, R. Yu, B. Wang, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2017. "Characterization of Syntrophic Geobacter Communities Using ToF-SIMS." Biointerphases 12, no. 5:05G601 1-11. PNNL-SA-125721. doi:10.1116/1.4986832

Yao J., D. Lao, X. Sui, Y. Zhou, S.K. Nune, X. Ma, and T. Troy, et al. 2017. "Two Coexisting Liquid Phases in Switchable Ionic Liquids." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 19, no. 34:22627-22623. PNNL-SA-122167. doi:10.1039/C7CP03754F

Yao J., Y. Zhou, X. Sui, D. Lao, D.J. Heldebrant, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2017. "Errata: Switchable 1, 8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene and 1-hexanol ionic liquid analyzed by liquid ToF-SIM." Surface Science Spectra 24, no. 1:018001. PNNL-SA-124584. doi:10.1116/1.4978877

Yu X., J. Yu, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, J.E. Evans, and X. Yu, et al. 2017. "An Investigation of the Beam Damage Effect on In situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 31, no. 23:2035-2042. PNNL-SA-127706. doi:10.1002/rcm.7983


Chen L., D.F. Zhang, P. Lv, J. Zhang, X. Du, W. Yuan, and S. Nan, et al. 2016. "Evolutions of Molecular Oxygen Formation and Sodium Migration in Xe Ion Irradiated Borosilicate Glasses." Journal of Non-crystalline Solids 448. PNNL-SA-119310. doi:10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2016.06.029

Ding Y., Y. Zhou, J. Yao, C.J. Szymanski, J.K. Fredrickson, L. Shi, and B. Cao, et al. 2016. "In Situ Molecular Imaging of the Biofilm and Its Matrix." Analytical Chemistry 88, no. 22:11244-11252. PNNL-SA-121602. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03909

Hua X., C.J. Szymanski, Z. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Ma, J. Yu, and J.E. Evans, et al. 2016. "Chemical imaging of molecular changes in a hydrated single cell by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry and super-resolution microscopy." Integrative Biology 8, no. 5:579-666. PNNL-SA-110602. doi:10.1039/c5ib00308c

Neeway J.J., S.N. Kerisit, J. Liu, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, B.J. Riley, and J.V. Ryan. 2016. "Ion-Exchange Interdiffusion Model with Potential Application to Long-Term Nuclear Waste Glass Performance." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 17:9374-9384. PNNL-SA-116172. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b03681

Oudriss A., S. Le Guernic, Z. Wang, B. Osman Hock, J. Bouhattate, E. Conforto, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2016. "Meso-scale anisotropic hydrogen segregation near grain-boundaries in polycrystalline nickel characterized by EBSD/SIMS." Materials Letters 165. PNNL-SA-115815. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2015.12.016

Proetto M.T., C.R. Anderton, D. Hu, C.J. Szymanski, Z. Zhu, J.P. Patterson, and J.K. Kammeyer, et al. 2016. "Cellular Delivery of Nanoparticles Revealed with Combined Optical and Isotopic Nanoscopy." ACS Nano 10, no. 4:4046-4054. PNNL-SA-106955. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b06477

Wang C.M., Z. Zhu, M.H. Engelhard, A. Devaraj, and D.R. Baer. 2016. "Multimodal and in-situ chemical imaging of critical surfaces and interfaces in Li batteries." Microscopy Today 24, no. 2:32-39. PNNL-SA-115445.

Wang T., X. Du, W. Yuan, B. Duan, J. Zhang, L. Chen, and H. Peng, et al. 2016. "Morphological Study Of Borosilicate Glass Surface Irradiated By Heavy Ions." Surface & Coatings Technology 306, no. Part A:245-250. PNNL-SA-122619. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.06.018

Wang Z., J. Liu, Y. Zhou, J.J. Neeway, D.K. Schreiber, J.V. Crum, and J.V. Ryan, et al. 2016. "Nanoscale Imaging of Li and B in Nuclear Waste Glass, a Comparison of ToF-SIMS, NanoSIMS and APT." Surface and Interface Analysis 48, no. 13:1392-1401. PNNL-SA-115059. doi:10.1002/sia.6049

Yao J., Y. Zhou, X. Sui, D. Lao, D.J. Heldebrant, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2016. "Switchable 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene and 1-hexanol ionic liquid analyzed by liquid ToF-SIMS." Surface Science Spectra 23, no. 1:9-28. PNNL-SA-114576. doi:10.1116/1.4948526

Yu J., Y. Zhou, X. Hua, S. Liu, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2016. "Capturing the transient species at the electrode-electrolyte interface by in situ dynamic molecular imaging." Chemical Communications 52, no. 73:10952-10955. PNNL-SA-120282. doi:10.1039/C6CC02893D

Yu J., Y. Zhou, X. Hua, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2016. "In Situ Characterization of Hydrated Proteins in Water by SALVI and ToF-SIMS." Journal of Visualized Experiments. PNNL-SA-110334. doi:10.3791/53708

Zhai Y., J.S. DuChene, Y. Wang, J. Qiu, A.C. Johnson-Peck, B. You, and W. Guo, et al. 2016. "Polyvinylpyrrolidone-induced anisotropic growth of gold nanoprisms in plasmon-driven synthesis." Nature Materials 15, no. 8:889-896. PNNL-SA-107281. doi:10.1038/nmat4683

Zhang K., D. Ding, C. Yang, Y. Gan, S. Li, W. Huang, and Y. Song, et al. 2016. "Real-space Characterization Of Reactivity Towards Water At The Bi2Te3(111) Surface." Physical Review B 93, no. 23:Article No. 235445. PNNL-SA-119439. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.93.235445

Zhang L., W. Jiang, A.C. Dissanayake, J. Peng, W. Ai, J. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2016. "Lattice damage and compositional changes in Xe ion irradiated InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32-1.0) single crystals." Journal of Applied Physics 119, no. 24:Article No. 245704. PNNL-SA-116750. doi:10.1063/1.4954691

Zhang L., W. Jiang, A.C. Dissanayake, T. Varga, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and D. Hu, et al. 2016. "Grain growth of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC under Au ion irradiation at elevated temperatures." Journal of Physics D. Applied Physics 49, no. 3:035304. PNNL-SA-110626. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/49/3/035304

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